Many social service leaders with only a focus on promoting social justice had become increasingly aware that to grow, they needed to incorporate more financial and business management practices into their nonprofit organizations. Leaders in the for-profit world are becoming more concerned about the need for social responsibility and promoting programs that not only made a profit but also reflected a social justice perspective. This book explicitly integrates social justice principles into the management of a nonprofit organization. The book discusses the history of the development of nonprofit management up to the present day. It addresses legal and ethical considerations, organizational planning and staff management, finance, public relations, fundraising, public advocacy and volunteerism, program design and grant development, governance and board development, developing an international nonprofit, information technology, career development, and creating a nonprofit/social entrepreneurship organization. Additional chapters address quality improvement, mentoring, and proposal writing. The text is ideal for students and faculty in social service administration, human service leadership, social work management, public and community health, public administration, and health care administration and management.
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Historically, community-based nonprofit organizations have drawn board members from their local communities. Board members are being asked to deepen their understanding of the mission of the agency and develop an understanding of social change and social justice. As the agency matures, the roles of the board shift and they become more responsible for governance and fundraising. A well-balanced board is composed of people of various professional backgrounds and social skills, with cultural and ethnic diversity that reflects the composition of the people being served by the agency, and with the financial means, or access to it, to provide support for the agency. Irrespective of any professional credentials that board members may hold, it is critical that all board members have strong leadership skills. Board members are frequently concerned about how agencies handle their ‘legal issues’.
In order to be an effective manager, the key ingredient is to understand that the world, as it is perceived, is the world that is behaviorally important. As a manager, it is important to be able to differentiate between fact and inference. Managers should identify staff with high-power needs and understand that when those people feel powerless or not in control of a situation, they are more likely to be frustrated. As many managers view the appraisal process as intruding into their “regular” responsibilities, they tend to not want to go out of their way to concentrate on gathering, thoroughly evaluating, and digesting all the information needed to accurately assess a staff member’s performance. An ongoing and open dialogue between staff and management is critical to ensure that the manager is conducting him- or herself in a manner that fits into the parameters of social justice.
This chapter refers to the most important federal tax laws relating to nonprofit governance. It addresses the relationship between tax-exempt status and advocacy for “social justice” that is an important public policy issue. The chapter describes the type of nonprofit organization, the primary responsibilities of directors, trustees, and officers, how to address conflicts of interest and related party transactions, important governance rules related to fundraising and what legal rules affect nonprofit organizations engaging in advocacy for social justice. A nonprofit status is generally a state law concept that may make an organization eligible for benefits such as state income, sales, and property tax exemption. The ultimate legal authority and responsibility for a nonprofit organization lie with the governing board, which is composed of directors or trustees. The chapter concludes by extracting some general principles and best practices for good governance of nonprofits.
Social justice is the foundation for a democratic society and means that all people should have an equal chance to achieve economic, personal, and public success. Social change means that nonprofit organizations do not accept the status quo in the health, education, poverty, and other areas of public concern where they work. The problem in today’s financially uncertain world is that nonprofits have moved away from doing social change advocacy and concentrate more on their own staff, fundraising, and other management issues. This chapter traces the development and evaluation of a training program for present and future nonprofit leaders that combine management and social change skills and knowledge, which allow a nonprofit executive to take on social change challenges. The training considers social change as a part of the daily workload of a nonprofit and so it is integrated into each management course in the curriculum.
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts of key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book illustrates the emerging importance of social justice when developing the nonprofit leader of the future. It describes the importance of financial management skills for the nonprofit leader. The book explores the changing role of a nonprofit board that includes more accountability and a higher level of demands. It analyzes many diverse functions within the nonprofit ecosystem and discusses how social justice is now an absolutely essential skill set when developing leaders in this field. The book examines the evolution of nonprofit boards from its humble beginnings as a neighborhood organization to its current state of a more formal entity. It indicates the definition of ‘social justice’ as creating an egalitarian society that is based on equality and solidarity where human rights and the dignity of each individual is of utmost importance.
At every stage of the job search, the successful candidate will need to ensure positioning as a strong fit for the right opportunity. First, job seekers who have clear insight on what they have to offer will gather information to identify target organizations that are good prospects for a fit with their career goals. Having identified a list of their target organizations, the next step is to gather as much intelligence on them as possible to help these individuals customize their resumes and cover letters for specific opportunities. Most nonprofit organizations are dedicated to a mission of advancing social justice or making the world better in some way. In filling leadership level positions, they look for the candidate who will embrace the mission and has leadership skills that will spark the organization to generate an even greater impact.
Nonprofit organizations with a social justice mission have historically used social interventions for individual and social change. This chapter talks about nonprofit program leaders and staff with basic competencies in understanding the language and practice of program development and evaluation of social interventions. Emphasizing a social justice approach, it frames program development and evaluation in the context of a “theory of change” and “impact theory” using a logic model, a visual depiction of the change process. Although the chapter focuses on programs, a theory of change framework can be applied to individual and community level interventions with individuals, families, groups, programs, organizations, or communities at a local or global level. It reviews a variety of evaluation methods, such as needs assessments, process and outcome evaluations, and empowerment and culturally competent practice. The chapter also provides some guidelines and recommendations on how to prepare grants and obtain funding.
This chapter presents a summary of authors’ perspectives as Fordham Graduate School of Business lecturers who had the opportunity to teach in an entirely different environment with students seeking to develop their skills in the field of nonprofit leadership for social justice. There are many similarities between the for-profit and nonprofit sectors in terms of the need to focus on leadership, management, strategy execution, organizational design, measuring performance, and developing talented individuals. The chapter reviews the principles and methodologies of strategic planning and the planning process used in for-profit organizations. It focuses on the assignment and discussion of an actual case study of the Madison Community House (MCH) as an example of a nonprofit strategic planning process and also on developing a course that would foster a robust learning environment. A theme of the course is to create a culture of integrity and ethical behavior.
Social justice and social change are theoretical orientations and organizing principles to guide action. This chapter explores the “traditional” nonelectronic mechanisms for cultivating donors and surveys the broad range of tools traditionally used to cultivate donors. Successful fundraising requires the connection of the donor’s values and priorities with a nonprofit’s core values, and mission. In general, an individual donor’s contributions typically are unrestricted and can be used for funding an organization’s general operating expenses. The nonprofit sector is supported by four types of funders: government, individuals, foundations, and corporations. Private and corporate foundations’ contributions are typically restricted or directed at covering the expenses of a particular program in an organization’s management portfolio. Managers often justify corporate giving on the basis of its claimed benefits to shareholders; benefits may include goodwill that is created by corporate involvement with charitable causes, which may lead to enhanced employee morale and increased customer loyalty.