This chapter describes maneuvers to access the internal system of the patient as well as means to accelerate or decelerate the work in that process of accessing the self-system. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), ego state therapy, and somatic therapy fit together like hand and glove. An extended preparation phase is often necessary before trauma processing in complex traumatic stress presentations and attachment-related syndromes, particularly when dealing with the sequelae of chronic early trauma. Clinical practice suggests that the adjunctive use of body therapy and ego state interventions can be useful, during stabilization and later on in increasing the treatment response to EMDR. Traditional treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders has usually included hypnoanalytic interventions, during which abreaction is considered an important part of treatment.
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This chapter focuses on the modulatory role of the neuropetides in attachment as well as autonomic regulation, discussing sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal, particularly dorsal vagal and ventral vagal regulation as suggested by polyvagal theory. The probable role of the endogenous opioid system in the modulation of oxytocin and vasopressin release is discussed with a view toward the elicitation of both relational and active defensive responses are reviewed. Porges’ Polyvagal Theory delineates two parasympathetic medullary systems, the ventral and dorsal vagal. Brain circuits involved in the maintenance of affiliative behavior are precisely those most richly endowed with opioid receptors. Avoidant attachment is commonly associated with parental figures that have been rejecting or unavailable and refers to a pattern of attachment where the child avoids contact with the parent. The similarity of severe posttraumatic presentations to autism suggests that the research with regard to social affiliation in autism spectrum.
This chapter focuses on identifying and working with dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders in a therapeutic context, providing a road map to assist with the pacing and planning of clinical interventions. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep can be conceptualized as a household strength processor that can accommodate the usual processing requirements of daily life. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been historically defined as requiring a trauma that is outside the range of normal human experience. Hypoarousal and parasympathetic activation that are an intrinsic part of dissociative symptoms are much more difficult to assess. The original painful memories live on in flashbacks and nightmares as well as in reenactments of the unconscious dynamics captured from the family of origin’s enactments of perpetration, victimization, rescuing, and neglect. Excessive sympathetic nervous system activation is easily construed to be an indicator of psychopathology.
This chapter reviews the disturbances in self-referential processing and social cognition in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to early-life trauma. It talks about the neural underpinnings of self-referential processing and examines how they may relate the integrity of the default mode network (DMN). The chapter describes the deficits in social cognition, with a particular focus on theory of mind in PTSD and the neural circuitry underlying direct versus avert eye contact. It then addresses the implications for assessment and treatment. Johnson demonstrated that self-referential processing is associated with the activation of cortical midline structures and therefore overlaps with key areas of the DMN in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals exhibited faster responses to the self-relevance of personal characteristics than to the accuracy of general facts. Less activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed for the contrast of self-relevance of personal characteristics relative to general facts as compared to controls.
This book was conceived out of the authors' shared vision to synthesize key neurobiological developments with effective developments in clinical practice to offer both understanding and practical guidance for the many practitioners working to heal people burdened with traumatic sequelae. It is unique in bringing in all levels of the brain from the brainstem, through the thalamus and basal ganglia, to the limbic structures, including the older forms of cortex, to the neocortex. The book looks at the neurochemistry of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) and explores the effects on neuroplasticity and the eventual structural dissociation. Individual chapters focus on the definition of PD and tonic immobility (TI) and their associations with posttraumatic psychopathology, and review disturbances in self-referential processing and social cognition in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to early-life trauma. Separate chapters focus on the modulatory role of the neuropetides in attachment as well as autonomic regulation, and highlight mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system as central to the experiences of affiliation, attachment urge when under threat, attachment urge during experience of safety, and to the distress of isolation and/or submission. The book while increasing awareness of different parts of the self and ultimately creating a more stable sense of self, also incorporates psychoanalytic, cognitive behavioral, and hypnotic methods, as well as specific ego state, somatic/sensorimotor therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and variations of EMDR suitable for working with trauma in the attachment period. The latter methods are explicitly information-processing methods that address affective and somatic modes of processing.
This chapter focuses on educational purposes for the promotion of research. It helps the practitioners to study the available evidence and use professional discretion in their prescribing decisions, being fully aware of known potential risks as well as benefits. The literature describes the use of opioid antagonists in a number of different disorders, some of them traumatic stress and attachment-related disorders, as well as dissociative disorders. Self-injurious behavior is common in the more severe traumatic stress syndromes. It also happens to be one of the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a diagnosis that has been associated with childhood abuse and attachment conflicts. Pathological gambling is thought to provide rewards through endogenous opioid effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder that is thought to result from the type of autonomic system dysfunction to which traumatic stress disposes.
This chapter highlights mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system as central to the experiences of affiliation, attachment urge when under threat, attachment urge during experience of safety, and to the distress of isolation and/or submission. As the midbrain defense centers hold the capacity for stress-induced analgesia (SIA), the tendency to dissociation, which is established with disorganized attachment in very early life, is considered to be secondary to modifications of their sensitivity. Trauma survivors have a default setting that keeps them in threat mode, whether triggered easily by memories of physical danger or separation distress. In a secure attachment relationship, the child can learn the rewards of interaction without threat. The frozen indecision is replaced by a disconnection from the experience of the moment, which relieves the distress. Environmental stress alters the nursing behavior of the mother rat so that she ceases to do so much licking/grooming.
This chapter provides an overview of delirium and dementia, including primary dementias, secondary dementias, and reversible dementias. The distinction between mild and major neurocognitive disorders is described. An in-depth description of Alzheimer’s disease, including etiology, treatment, and general guidelines for care, is included. Other dementias including Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Lewy body disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and vascular dementia are also briefly covered. Secondary dementias (e.g., dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease) and reversible dementias (e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus) conclude the chapter.
An overview of the gastrointestinal system as it relates to the nutritional status of the older individual is presented. The anatomy and physiology and age-related changes of the system are reviewed. Selected common age-related disorders are discussed along with their incidence, presenting symptoms, diagnostic measures, and interventions. The American Cancer Society’s 2020 screening recommendations for the intestines are then outlined.
An overview of the anatomy, physiology, and functioning of the respiratory system is provided. Age-related changes in the respiratory system along with selected specific disorders commonly experienced by older adults and measures useful in preventing and living with respiratory dysfunctions are explained.