The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Meaning in Heart Disease instrument (MHD), in persons who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Within 1 year of PCI, 232 persons completed the MHD and construct validity measures (SF-36v2™, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Study aims were examined using reliability analysis, factor analysis, and correlations. After factor analysis, four scales reflecting the theoretical concepts central to the conceptual framework of the instrument emerged—Disrupted Meaning (α = .93), Refocusing Global Meaning (α = .92), Searching for Answers (α = .82), and Ignoring Heart Disease (α = .77). Convergent and divergent validity was supported, in part, for all scales. The MHD had strong support for its validity and will be useful in testing nursing interventions aimed at helping individuals integrate heart disease into the life experience.
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The growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses concludes that more research is required to understand the organizational, professional, and personal variables that improve nurse satisfaction and retention. This study developed and psychometrically tested a nurse satisfaction questionnaire, suitable for the nurses’ working conditions in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, in Greek, was conducted in three public hospitals. Two-hundred and twenty-five Greek nurses evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek Nurses’ Job Satisfaction Scale (GNJSS). The 18-item questionnaire showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.907) and revealed four factors that are consistent with the predetermined subscales and the conceptual base of the GNJSS. The factors, which explain 62.420% of variance, are associated with interaction and recognition, leadership style and organizational policies, self-growth and responsibility, and remuneration and work itself. Although it would be useful to carry out further analyses to assess time-based properties of reliability, the GNJSS questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess nurses’ job satisfaction.
- Go to article: Development of a Culturally Specific Instrument for Mammography Screening: An Example With American Indian Women in Vermont
Development of a Culturally Specific Instrument for Mammography Screening: An Example With American Indian Women in Vermont
This article presents the triangulation process for translating qualitative data about mammography screening from a grounded theory study with American Indian women in Vermont, into questionnaire items based on an existing model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages-of-Change. Qualitative data were used to derive a theory, Moving in Between Mammography, which suggested that traditionality influenced American Indian women’s screening decisions. To examine the relationship between mammography and traditionality, new items were developed for each of three key TTM constructs: Pros, Cons, and Processes-of-Change. The process for developing the new TTM-based items, as well as traditionality items specific for American Indian women living off-reservation, are presented. This article provides one example of how an instrument can be developed within a culturally competent nursing framework.
Psychometric properties for Part I ofhe Power Management Inventory (Hawker & Hall, 1981) are presented following validation of the instrument with samples of nurse managers (N=54) and executives (N=92). The content validity indices were .85 for management issues (item stems), .65 for Personalized Power (PP), .75 for Socialized Power (SP), and .70 for Affiliative Motive (AM) scales. Internal consistency reliabilities were acceptable (.63 to .87). Test-Retest correlations (n = 19 managers) ranged from .74 to .85. Correlation of nurse manager (n = 50) scores with subordinate scores of managers were significant (p < .05) for PP (r = .32) and AM (r = .29). Correlation of nurse executive (n = 59) scores with chief executive officer scores of executives were significant for PP (r = .32, p < .01) and AM (r=.25,p< .05). Mean scores on PP, SP and AM failed to profile the motive pattern for “successful” managers. About 29% of the managers and 39% of the executives were categorized as having no power motive preference. Use of the PMI for career counseling/decisions in nursing is not recommended, however, its use as an organizational development tool is endorsed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Dutch Itching Cognitions Questionnaire (ICQ). This by origin German questionnaire, the Juckreiz Kognitons Fragebogen consists of two subscales: catastrophizing and helpless coping and problem-focused coping, and measures itch-related coping. The results were compared with the German and Japanese validation studies. The Dutch ICQ was completed by 171 patients with chronic pruritic skin diseases. Reliability was evaluated by determining internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, and item–total correlation. Cronbach’s alpha was .90 (catastrophizing and helpless coping) and .81 (problem-focused coping). The mean inter-item correlations for the subscales were .48 (catastrophizing and helpless coping) and .30 (problem-focused coping). The item–total correlations range from .57 to .76 (catastrophizing and helpless coping) and from .32 to .57 (problem-focused coping).
Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the model and support construct validity. Concurrent validity was determined by examining correlations of the ICQ with intensity of itching and scratching, depression, and anxiety. The correlations of the subscale catastrophizing and helpless coping with intensity of itching and intensity of scratching are .28 (p < .01) and .32 (p < .01), respectively. The correlation between the subscale problem-focused coping and intensity of itching is .23 (p < .01). No significant correlation exists between problem-focused coping and intensity of scratching. Correlations between both subscales and anxiety and depression vary from .33 to .58 (p < .01). It was concluded that the Dutch version of the ICQ is a reliable and valid instrument.
The purpose of this study was to theoretically base, develop, and test items for the Childbirth Schema Scale. The scale was designed to obtain an understanding of schema formation and revision with the known stressor of childbirth. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using a sample of childbearing women, surveyed before and after birth. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a four-factor solution supporting the theoretical factors of emotions of outcome, sensations of work, time, and preparation for control. Construct validity was assessed by hypothesis testing that women whose prebirth schemas were least like their real experience would use more review than women whose schemas were closer. A significant t test between the two groups provided some evidence of validity. The factors were used to form subscales. Internal consistency scores for each subscale were .73, .70, .84, and .65, respectively.
The Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI) was developed and tested to provide a practical measure of maternal affectionate attachment. MAI items were identified from the literature, and their construct validity was assessed by experts who numerically rated them for relevance. The MAI, two other indicators of maternal attachment, and a measure of maternal adjustment were completed by 196 women approximately 1 month after the birth of their infants. Two subgroups of women completed the research instruments when their infants were 4 (Group A) or 8 (Group B) months old. The MAI demonstrated evidence of validity through significant correlations with other indicators of maternal attachment (the How I Feel About the Baby Now Scale and the Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale) at all time points and a correlation with maternal adjustment as measured by the Maternal Attitudes and Maternal Adjustment Scale. The MAI also demonstrated evidence of acceptable internal consistency reliability at all three time points.
This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the Modified Reminiscence Functions Scale (MRFS). The 39-item MRFS was validated on a sample of 271 racially diverse older adults. Psychometric analysis included content validity, item analysis, principal component analysis with varimax rotation, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency reliability using Cronbach’s alpha. The model’s structure supports a seven-factor, 39-item scale. Test–retest and Cronbach’s alpha for the instrument were .82 and .94, respectively. The seven-factor scale: self-regard, death, bitterness, intimacy, teach–inform, boredom, and conversation accounted for 61% of variance. Evidence indicates the self-report Likert instrument is a reliable and valid measure of reminiscence functions. Cross-validation with other populations and further research is needed to identify other reminiscence dimensions–functions.
- Go to article: Comparison of Three Modes of Measuring Stress, Coping, and Humor in School-Age Children
Computer-assisted administration of surveys is gaining popularity among many researchers, but the equivalence of this method to more traditional approaches such as using paper and pencil has not been determined for many commonly used questionnaires, particularly among school-age children. This study examined systematic differences in the responses of 4th, 5th, and 6th graders to measures of stress, coping, and humor among three modes of assessment: paper-and-pencil questionnaires, computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI), or a combination of paper-and-pencil and CASI. Participants were 1,245 ethnically diverse children enrolled in public schools in the central region of the United States. Psychometric and score distribution characteristics were examined using item analyses and analyses of mean and covariance structure as a function of mode of assessment. Differences in response patterns, primarily at the scale score level, were documented on some of the key measures. In general, CASI medians and means were higher and correlations among CASI measures tended to be lower than those obtained with paper-and-pencil and mixed mode assessment, and CASI variances were lower. This study suggests the importance of the continued examination of the impact of mode of questionnaire administration when assessing these and other domains of well-being in school-age children.
Background and Purpose: Technology of ear infrared (IR) thermometers has improved. This study compared a modern ear thermometer to forehead or temporal artery thermometers. Methods: Temperatures were measured with a heated-tip ear thermometer, a temporal artery thermometer, 3 forehead thermometers, and a thermistor-based reference thermometer in monitor mode. Results: In 171 subjects, mean bias with the forehead thermometers was significantly higher (p < .001) than with the ear thermometer (0.01 °C ± 0.41 °C). In 64 febrile subjects, bias with the ear thermometer was significantly lower than with 3 of the other thermometers. A false-negative reading was less likely with the ear thermometer (8%) versus the others (55%, 56%, 28%, and 47%). Conclusions: Modern ear thermometry provides more precise measurements closer to those of a reference thermometer and is less likely to give false-negative readings than forehead or temporal artery measurements.