This chapter discusses comprehensive school crisis interventions, identifies the characteristics that define a crisis, finds ways to assess for the level of traumatic impact, and determines what interventions can be provided to help with response and recovery. It highlights the PREPaRE Model of crisis prevention and intervention. There are six general categories of crises: acts of war and/or terrorism; violent and/or unexpected deaths; threatened death and/or injury; human-caused disasters; natural disasters; and severe illness or injury. Children are a vulnerable population and in the absence of quality crisis interventions, there can be negative short- and long-term implications on learning, cognitive development, and mental health. Evidence-based interventions focusing on physical and psychological safety may be implemented to prevent a crisis from occurring or mitigate the traumatic impact of a crisis event by building resiliency in students. Crisis risk factors are variables that predict whether a person becomes a psychological trauma victim.
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- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Depression is a chronic, recurring disorder that impacts children’s academic, interpersonal, and family functioning. The heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be in the range of 31% to 42%. This chapter begins with a brief overview of the etiology of depression. It presents a description of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention designed to be delivered in a group format, an individual interpersonal intervention, and an individual behavioral activation (BA) intervention that includes a great deal of parental involvement. The ACTION program is a manualized program that is based on a cognitive behavioral model of depression. There are four primary treatment components to ACTION: affective education, coping skills training (BA), problem-solving training, and cognitive restructuring. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of universal therapeutic techniques to be incorporated into work with depressed youth regardless of the therapeutic orientation or treatment strategy.
Divorce is a lengthy developmental process and, in the case of children and adolescents, one that can encompass most of their young lives. This chapter explores the experience of divorce from the perspective of the children, reviews the evidence base and empirical support for interventions. It provides examples of three evidence-based intervention programs, namely, Children in Between, Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP), and New Beginnings, appropriate for use with children, adolescents, and their parents. Promoting protective factors and limiting risk factors during childhood and adolescence can prevent many mental, emotional, and behavioral problems and disorders during those years and into adulthood. The Children in Between program is listed on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. The CODIP and the New Beginnings program are also listed on the SAMHSA National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.
Children and youth with serious emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties present challenges for teachers, parents, and peers. Youth who are at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are particularly vulnerable in the areas of peer and adult social relationships. The emphasis on meeting academic standards and outcomes for children and youth in schools has unfortunately pushed the topic of social-emotional development to the proverbial back burner. This chapter emphasizes that social skills might be considered academic enablers because these positive social behaviors predict short-term and long-term academic achievement. Evidence-based practices are employed with the goal of preventing or ameliorating the effects of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in children and youth. An important distinction in designing and delivering social skills interventions (SSI) is differentiating between different types of social skills deficits. Social skills deficits may be either acquisition deficits or performance deficits.
Eating disorders (EDs) are a complex and comparatively dangerous set of mental disorders that deeply affect the quality of life and well-being of the child or adolescent who is struggling with this problem as well as those who love and care for him or her. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) outlines specific criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or ED. Treatment of eating disordered behavior typically involves a three-facet approach: medical assessment and monitoring, nutritional counseling, and psychological and behavioral treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are also evidence-based approaches to treatment for AN. The treatment of EDs should be viewed as a team effort that integrates medical, nutritional, and mental health service providers.
Asthma, a pulmonary condition, is a chronic respiratory disorder typified by persistent underlying inflammation of tissues, airway obstruction, congestion, hyperresponsive airways, and the narrowing of smooth airway muscle. Asthma is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in children and is the leading cause of school absenteeism. This chapter describes childhood asthma, including its causes and triggers. It elucidates the extant research supporting treatment of the disorder and provides step-by-step empirically based interventions to ameliorate asthmatic symptomatology in children. The psychological underpinnings of asthma have been investigated in the field of psycho-neuroimmunology (PNI), which examines the interplay of the central nervous system, neuroendocrine, and immune system with psychological variables and their relation to physical health. Researchers have shown that relaxation and guided imagery (RGI), written emotional expression, yoga, and mindfulness therapy improve pulmonary lung functioning, decrease rates of absenteeism, and improve overall quality of life.
This chapter reviews the empirical support for such a multifaceted approach by considering selected neurodevelopmental concerns and medical variables that present as obstacles to healthy neurodevelopment. It discusses select neuro-developmental prenatal complications that can be prevented or ameliorated through behavioral interventions with the pregnant mother. The chapter addresses the deleterious effects of legal substances on the developing fetus, but professionals should be vigilant about preventing or reducing intrauterine exposure to illicit substances as well. Tobacco is a legal substance that, when used during pregnancy, has the potential to harm both the mother and fetus. Of particular concern with tobacco use are the detrimental health risks, such as hypertension and diabetes, which adversely affect the cerebrovascular functioning of pregnant women. The process of neurodevelopment is complex and represents a dynamic interplay among genetics, behavior, demographics, the environment, psychosocial factors, and myriad physiological factors.
Peer aggression is a pervasive and costly problem in schools. Physical aggression, which consists of hitting or pushing others, and verbal aggression, which includes threatening, name-calling, and teasing, have long been recognized as the most common forms of aggression, especially among boys. All forms of aggressive behavior have been associated with various maladaptive outcomes throughout childhood and adolescence such as increased substance use, academic underachievement, and negative peer relationships. To determine best-practice strategies to prevent and intervene with aggressive behavior, it is crucial to understand the etiology of anger and aggression. Many aggression prevention programs are rooted in the ecological framework of development, with programming occurring across many settings in the school, and include both school staff and parents. Coping power; walk away, ignore, talk, seek help (WITS); and preventing relational aggression in schools everyday (PRAISE) are three evidence-based interventions that focus on aggression and victimization prevention.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions to Support Youth Following Natural Disasters: Evidence-Based Principles and Practices
Evidence-Based Interventions to Support Youth Following Natural Disasters: Evidence-Based Principles and Practices
This chapter discusses issues associated with specific natural disasters, generalized issues associated with most natural disasters, and evidence-based principles and practices for supporting youth following a natural disaster. La Greca highlighted three phases of recovery following natural disasters and offers evidence-based interventions associated with each phase. These include the postimpact phase, short-term recovery and reconstruction phase, and the long-term recovery phase. The chapter outlines the effects of natural disasters on children and provides an overview of strategies for supporting children and adolescents following traumatic events. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized as an anxiety reaction that emerges after witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. The chapter summarizes three evidence-based approaches to support children in the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event, such as a natural disaster: trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and the Mourning Child Grief Support Curriculum (MCGC).
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has been associated with a number of negative behavioral, academic, and interpersonal outcomes for children and adolescents. It initially received a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. High rates of comorbid anxiety disorders have also been found in children with PBD. Psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP) uses a biopsychosocial model and combines family therapy, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques with the goal of helping families to better understand and manage the symptoms of PBD and coordinate more effective treatment. This chapter focuses on a description of PEP, including three key interventions of this therapeutic approach: Psychoeducation and Motto, Building a Tool Kit, and Thinking-Feeling-Doing. PEP is a manual-based treatment designed for youth with mood disorders and their caregivers, broken down into separate youth and caregiver sessions. Sessions focus primarily on psychoeducation and skills building and are delivered in individual family (IF-PEP) and multiple family formats (MF-PEP).
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents
The content of the obsessions and compulsions varies among individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, there are five themes that are commonly experienced across both children and adults: contamination, symmetry/ordering, forbidden or taboo thoughts, harm, and hoarding. Notably, OCD becomes more gender balanced into adolescence and adulthood. Comorbid diagnoses are common among youth with OCD. Common comorbid disorders include anxiety disorders, tic disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and major depressive disorder. The etiology of OCD is multidetermined with behavioral, cognitive, genetic, and biological factors being implicated. This chapter describes three successful cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions: CBT with exposure and response prevention (ERP), family-based CBT with ERP, and cognitive therapy interventions that can be used in conjunction with ERP. Treatment guidelines for pediatric OCD suggest the most efficacious treatment is CBT with ERP, either alone or in combination with pharmaco-therapy for the most severe cases.
In 2013, 42% of fourth-grade students and 36% of eighth-grade students in the United States (US) performed at the proficient or advanced level on the mathematics National Assessment Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments, indicating that more than half of students at these grades are performing below proficient levels in math. Prevalence rates of math disabilities (MD) are difficult to estimate. More than 2 million school-aged children in the US are identified as having specific learning disability (SLD). There are three primary models for determination of an SLD in the US: IQ-achievement discrepancy, patterns of strengths and weaknesses (PSW), and Responsiveness-to-Intervention (RTI). Children with a math disability or comorbid math/reading disability are also more likely to meet criteria for a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. Schema-based strategy instruction is an evidence-based procedure to improve achievement in math.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Treating emotional and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents is a complex issue; that is, practitioners must understand children’s typical patterns of social, emotional, and cognitive development and determine what is responsible for having taken the referred child off that “normal” path. Most children identified as socially maladjusted benefit from treatment and schooling provided in alternative education classes. Social maladjustment has historically also been synonymous with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and oppositional-defiant disorder. The diathesis-stress model is the balance between stressors and coping that accounts for the onset and continuation of mental health and other medical disorders. Three psychosocial intervention approaches are effective for all youth with conduct problems: parent training, contingency management, and cognitive behavioral skill training. As skills develop and stabilize, interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence form emotional intelligence.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Persistent Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Depression in children and adolescents is a serious, potentially life-threatening problem. Traditionally, depression has been diagnosed using two primary categories: major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymic disorder (DD). When compared with youth diagnosed with MDD, children and adolescents with persistent depressive disorder (PDD) are at increased risk for having a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common treatments of depression include various forms of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychotropic medication. This chapter provides summary of the step-by-step implementation of IPT for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Many youth struggle with chronic, sometimes debilitating depression for extended periods of time, leading to underachievement, secondary substance abuse, school failure and drop-out, violent or self-harming behavior, and even death by suicide. Clearly, evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions are needed.
This chapter reviews the research on expect respect, second step, and the recognize, understand, label, express, and regulate emotions (RULER) program, curricula with outcome data from US schools for step-by-step implementation by mental health professionals in the hopes of ameliorating this serious epidemic and enhancing the academic, behavioral, social, and emotional functioning of children and adolescents. School bullying and peer victimization are pervasive phenomena that affect many youth. Bullying may inflict harm or distress on the targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm. Direct bullying is a relatively open aggressive act on the targeted youth, whereas indirect bullying is not directly communicated to the student being targeted. Moreover, physical, verbal, relational, and damage to property have been identified as specific forms or dimensions of bullying. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is an evidence-based framework for reducing a wide variety of problem behavior in school settings.
Many children experience the death of someone close to them before the age of 18 years. This chapter reviews the effects of bereavement on children’s functioning and the risk and protective factors that exacerbate or mitigate grief-related problems. It provides step-by-step instructions for two evidence-based interventions for school-aged children and adolescents. Childhood traumatic grief refers to a condition in which children develop trauma-related symptoms that interfere with their ability to appropriately mourn a death. The Family Bereavement Program (FBP) is a theory-based intervention for parentally bereaved children and their surviving caregivers. The child component focuses on increasing self-esteem, reducing negative appraisals of stressful events, strengthening youths’ relationships with their caregivers, strengthening coping skills, and increasing adaptive emotional expression. The Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) is commonly implemented in schools and community-based settings after children’s exposure to a traumatic, violent, or disastrous event.
Conduct disorder in childhood and adolescence is considered to be a significant mental health concern because of its connection to numerous other social, emotional, and academic outcomes, both in terms of concurrent and future functioning. This chapter focuses on the examination and explanation of the treatment strategies for the conduct disorder. There are four main groupings of behavior for conduct disorder: aggressive conduct, nonaggressive conduct, deceitfulness or theft, and serious rule violations. The chapter examines the role of genetic, neurological, and environmental factors implicated in the development of conduct disorder. Psychosocial treatment programs such as multisystemic therapy (MST), functional family therapy (FFT), and multidimensional treatment foster care that combine parental management training (PMT), structural family therapies, and skill-building appear to have a moderate to large-effect size in reducing aggression and symptoms of conduct disorder.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injuries and Concussions in Children and Adolescents
Evidence-Based Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injuries and Concussions in Children and Adolescents
This chapter discusses methods, procedures, and interventions that have been successful in working with children and adolescents with Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and/or concussions and for which there is empirical and clinical support. It provides empirically supported treatments that may be implemented in schools and clinics for youths with TBIs. TBIs are insults that occur from an event external to the individual. These can include open or closed head injuries and are often classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The majority of TBIs in childhood are closed head injuries and involve rapid acceleration, deceleration, and/or rotation of the head in space without impact with the skull. The level of severity depends on the physical and cognitive deficits associated with the injury. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a commonly used scoring system used to assess the severity of acute brain injury.
School absenteeism refers to physical absence from school, but school refusal behavior refers more broadly to child-motivated refusal to attend school. This chapter focuses on child-motivated school refusal behavior. Youth with school refusal behavior evince substantial heterogeneity in behavioral characteristics or symptoms. This population is notably high in internalizing behavioral problems, such as general and social anxiety, fear, worry, depression, self-consciousness, fatigue, and somatic complaints. Interventions for school refusal behavior can be arranged along a multitiered system similar to a Response to Intervention (RtI) model. RtI involves problem-solving-based interventions that focus on prevention, early intervention for emerging cases, and intense intervention for severe cases. The chapter contains a step-by-step process for several evidence-based interventions that address school refusal behavior in youth, including child-based therapy that focuses on anxiety management, parent- and family-based therapy that focuses on contingency management, and a broader approach that incorporates school personnel and other professionals.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Working With Culturally Diverse Children and Families
This chapter provides information on the best ways of providing optimal services for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and their families. One factor that significantly influences child well-being is whether the child is raised in a low-socioeconomic-status household. Despite the challenges and complexities involved in service provision, professionals have an ethical and professional responsibility to appropriately assess and intervene when diverse students struggle. Assessing language proficiency, acquiring relevant background information and selecting and using appropriate assessment tools are considered best practices when working with English language learners (ELLs). The evidence-based practice movement has become a professional priority given the importance of identifying effective interventions that can enhance service delivery to children, adolescents, and adults. The chapter concludes with a bibliography of readings and resources to assist mental health professionals in delivering high-quality services.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social development, communication, repetitive behaviors and/or interests, and, in some cases, cognitive delays. This chapter proposes that educators should build an approach that uses a combination of evidence-based practices when designing and implementing interventions for students with ASD. It is important to note that interventions for students with ASD include each of the following strategies: individualized instruction that incorporates choice and preference; functional programming; systemic instruction provided within a structured environment; and collaboration with families. Such programming should steadily expose students with ASD to cues, prompts, and interesting and motivating stimuli, as well as employ consistent feedback and repeated exposure in order to be most effective. The family members of a student diagnosed with ASD most often has the most insight into their child’s needs, styles, strengths, and interests.
Homework completion is viewed as a beneficial contributor to student learning and to the fundamental personal characteristics that underpin student academic behavior. This chapter promotes a greater understanding of the benefits of homework compliance while providing evidence-based expectations for appropriate homework loads, special education use of homework, and best practices in homework compliance management. It provides readers with empirically supported strategies for helping parents and teachers maximize the benefits of student homework completion, while reducing parental and student angst associated with compliance enforcement. The chapter offers an approach to promoting collaboration between school personnel and parents to enhance students’ academic competence using a multifaceted, school-based problem-solving model. Homework serves four primary instructional purposes: practice, preparation, extension, and integration. To augment the retention and learning of classroom material, numerous research-based interventions and strategies have been designed to enhance homework performance in children and adolescents.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health conditions to impact school-aged children. A particular diagnostic subtype termed “separation anxiety disorder” accounts for the majority of referrals seen within child and adolescent psychological service delivery systems including schools. The developmental connection between childhood separation anxiety disorder and adolescent/ adult panic disorder has also been well documented in the literature. Associated features of separation anxiety include parent-child dysfunction, school attendance difficulties, and challenges to social functioning. Biological and environmental factors play a role in the development of separation anxiety disorder. Evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with separation anxiety disorder include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), family therapy, pharmacological treatments, or a combination of these biopsychosocial therapies. Parental behaviors and parenting style are associated with increased risk for childhood anxiety, including separation anxiety disorder.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents
This chapter presents an overview of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence, including how symptoms may present and what factors are associated with risk of developing PTSD. It provides a review of the research literature and a step-by-step guide for practice for two empirically validated treatments for youth PTSD. The symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four clusters: intrusion symptoms, avoidance symptoms, cognition and mood symptoms, and arousal and reactivity symptoms. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) was initially developed to address trauma associated with child sexual abuse and has subsequently been adapted for use with children who have experienced other trauma types. Research indicates that TF-CBT is effective in treating PTSD, depression, and related behavioral problems in children exposed to traumatic events. The chapter provides a step-by-step breakdown of TF-CBT and Prolonged Exposure for Adolescents (PE-A) interventions, including descriptions of core components and standard implementation practices.
School violence as an identified topic of public policy and scientific research emerged in the 1990s out of a more general concern about adolescents’ involvement in violent crime and the occurrence of multiple victim homicides occurring on school campuses. This chapter aims to depict school violence intervention as a broad topic that requires comprehensive and integrated thinking about the behaviors and experiences within schools that should be considered as forms of “violence”. Social disorganization theory contends that an individual’s risk for involvement in problem behavior and perceptions of the environment are influenced by contextual variables suggestive of disorder. The Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing School and Community Violence, proposed an integrated pathway to safer schools, guided by four key elements: Balance, Communication, Connectedness, and Support (BCCS). The chapter provides the key components for implementing school-based interventions guided by the BCCS integrated model.
Selective mutism (SM) disorder is caused neither by an unfamiliarity with the language used in a specific social situation nor by a communication disorder. According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), SM is considered to be an anxiety disorder and may coexist with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It may co-occur with a variety of emotional responses, including ‘excessive shyness, fear of social embarrassment, social isolation and withdrawal, clinging, compulsive traits, negativism, or mild oppositional behavior’. Because of a substantial overlap between SM and SAD, it is widely believed that the disorders may have similar genetic etiologies. Video self-modeling (VSM) is the use of video to depict the child as a model engaged in appropriate and exemplary behavior as a treatment to improve target behaviors. Although a variety of interventions have been used with SM, behaviorally based techniques are the most successful.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Written-Language Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Writing is a fundamental communication skill that is important for everyday success. Children and adolescents use written language to communicate their thoughts, ideas, and knowledge to teachers in school; send messages to friends; write papers and reports; and engage in expository writing activities. Writing is an exceptionally complex task composed of multiple processes. Theories of writing development recognize three stages of writing, including planning or prewriting, drafting or composing, and revising or editing phases. This chapter focuses on writing instruction/intervention and student motivation. Effective writing instruction relies on evidence-based instructional approaches for developing and increasing writing skills related to planning, drafting, and revising tasks. In addition, it is important to consider student motivation as a primary reason for students not demonstrating success with written-language tasks. Self-monitoring has been shown to increase students’ academic engagement during writing as well as improve the writing performance of students with learning disabilities.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by a marked fear or anxiety about social situations in which the child or adolescent perceives that he or she may be scrutinized by others. This chapter reviews the current state of treatment for youth with SAD, beginning with a brief discussion of the etiology of social anxiety, followed by an overview of the empirical support for cognitive behavioral interventions. It reviews three empirically supported interventions for social anxiety in youth, such as the Coping Cat, cognitive behavioral group therapy for adolescents (CBGT-A), and social effectiveness therapy for children and adolescents (SET-C). The Many factors, including genetic, neurobiological, cognitive, and environmental, have been implicated in the development of SAD. The most efficacious psychological treatment for SAD is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Despite SAD’s pervasiveness and multiple causes, efficacious cognitive behavioral treatment exists and is effective.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Promoting Subjective Well-Being in Children and Adolescents
Perceived quality of life is shaped by internal beliefs and social interactions. There is empirical support for the dual nature of emotions in mental health, both among adults and youth. Although many well-being studies have focused on adults, research over the past two decades has examined subjective well-being (SWB) in school-aged youth. There are empirically validated SWB promotion strategies that warrant attention. This chapter provides an overview of a number of these programs and strategies that have been used to foster youths’ positive SWB, with a particular focus on school-based practices. It describes the benefits of SWB among youth, describes specific domains that have been addressed vis-à-vis SWB promotion strategies and summarizes multicomponent programs and narrowband strategies that have been shown to promote SWB levels. The chapter concludes with a description of the factors to consider when implementing efforts to foster SWB and provides key resources to support these efforts.
Stress is a ubiquitous experience in the lives of children and adolescents, regardless of the schools they attend, their families’ income, or the neighborhood in which they live. There is clear evidence correlating low socioeconomic status (SES) with increases in exposure to violence and other traumatic and stressful experiences. Gender and age also are important factors to consider as related to the amount and type of stress experienced by youth. The three main allo-static systems involved in physiologic reactions to stress include the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system. "Zippy’s Friends" is a school-based mental health promotion and intervention program for younger students in Kindergarten through first grade. The Zippy’s Friends program encourages students to understand their feelings and behavior that facilitates self-reliance and self-confidence. The three strategies of coping skill training, stress management, and mindfulness all show promise for very young children to high school students.
This chapter provides an overview of treatment integrity assessment foundations, guidelines for developing a treatment integrity assessment plan, analyzing treatment integrity and child outcomes together, and promoting treatment integrity. Together, this information may facilitate the development of high-quality, feasible, and defensible intervention evaluation in applied contexts. The chapter presents an overview of the current conceptualization of treatment integrity as a multidimensional construct, as well as commonly used assessment methods and possible response formats. It explains a multistep process for identifying the purpose for collecting treatment integrity data, determining the intervention level and type of treatment integrity data needed, and considering the level of risk for implementation failure and erroneous decisions. Mental health professionals regularly design and implement interventions with high situational risk, such as those related to child academic failure, possible special education classification, behavioral or social-emotional diagnosis, self-harm, and harm to others.
A consensus among professionals and the general population holds that helping children develop healthy self-concepts is a worthwhile goal. This chapter describes how healthy self-concepts are developed naturally and remediated through evidence-based interventions. Interventions for enhancing self-concept require a sound working theory, receptive and informed participants, thoughtful planning, and treatment fidelity. This chapter provides the reader with the theory and methodology to develop positive self-concepts in children and adolescents. There are a number of factors and models of self-concept that describe different factors contributing to self-concept development. The prominent models include cognitive and behavioral orientations, each with related contributing factors. People receive environmental feedback on their behavior or attributes from two feedback modes or perspectives-personal perspective and other perspective. The feedback individuals receive can be evaluated according to four standards include the absolute, comparative, ipsative, and ideal.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Tourette’s and Other Chronic Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Evidence-Based Interventions for Tourette’s and Other Chronic Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) lists two chronic tic disorder diagnoses, namely, persistent motor or vocal tic disorder (PMVTD) and Tourette’s disorder (TD). Both disorders require symptom onset before age 18 years and require the clinician to rule out alternative causes of tics, including substance abuse and other medical conditions. Tics may be categorized as either simple or complex. Children with tic disorders may be most impaired by comorbid conditions and associated features, including deficient social skills, sleep problems, anxiety and/or depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. A review conducted in 2007 found that only two approaches—habit reversal therapy (HRT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP)-have adequate evidence to treat tic disorders and TD. Tourette’s disorder and other chronic tic disorders are childhood-onset conditions characterized by sudden, involuntary movements or vocalizations.
Youth suicide is a significant public health problem both in the United States and in other countries. Evidence-based interventions for youth suicidal behavior include both community- and school-based approaches. Suicidal behavior which includes suicidal ideation, suicide-related communication, suicide attempts, and suicide represents a continuum of behaviors that affects hundreds of thousands of adolescents, young adults, and their friends and families each year. This chapter discusses several of these interventions, social, crisis hotlines and social media, psychopharmacological interventions, hospitalization, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and school-based suicide prevention programs. School-based mental health professionals are typically the most appropriate persons to lead universal information sessions. The chapter provides a brief guide to the implementation of a school-based, three-tier model of youth suicide prevention. Students who are identified as being at risk of suicidal behavior typically have significant mental health problems, particularly mood disorders, substance-related disorders and disruptive behavioral problems, respectively.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Elimination Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Enuresis and Encopresis
Evidence-Based Interventions for Elimination Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Enuresis and Encopresis
Elimination disorders in children, including encopresis as well as nocturnal and diurnal enuresis, are common causes of concern for parents. Although these toileting problems are often grouped together when discussing child and adolescent behavioral and health interventions, their etiology, associated complications, and recommended interventions are diverse enough that for the purposes of adequately describing intervention programs for each, this chapter addresses one of the three elimination disorders. Diurnal enuresis, also referred to as “daytime enuresis” or “daytime urinary incontinence”, is characterized by typically involuntary daytime wetting. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in children decreases as children grow older. There are two types of nocturnal enuresis: primary and secondary. Toileting difficulties are common concerns of parents of young children. It is fortunate that there are intervention programs based largely on behavioral principles that can be implemented by parents either alone or with guidance from a clinician.
This book deals with evidence-based mental health and learning interventions for children and adolescents, and provides guidance on implementation in practice. It is a compendium of proven treatment strategies for resolving more than 40 of the most pressing and prevalent issues facing young people, and provides immediate guidance and uniform step-by-step instructions for resolving issues ranging from psychopathological disorders to academic problems, and is of relevance for both school-based and clinically-based practice. Issues covered include crisis interventions and response, social and emotional issues, academic/learning issues, psychopathological disorders, neuropsychological disorders, and the behavioral management of childhood health issues. The book covers several fields of study including applied settings, school crises, natural disasters, school violence, suicidal behavior, childhood grief, reading disabilities, math disabilities, written-language disorders, homework compliance, anger and aggression, bullying, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Each chapter follows a consistent format including a brief description of the problem and associated characteristics, etiology and contributing factors, and three evidence-based, step-by-step sets of instructions for implementation. Additionally, each chapter provides several websites offering further information about the topic.
Childhood and adolescent obesity is widely recognized as a significant public health concern in the United States. This chapter reviews factors contributing to obesity’s etiology, including individual-, family-, and societal/community-level factors. Although societal factors contribute substantially to obesity’s etiology, the chapter focuses on psychological interventions, primarily targeting factors at the individual and family levels. Evidence-based treatments for obesity include behavioral strategies such as stimulus control, modification of physical and sedentary activities, as well as dietary prescriptions. Overweight and obesity in childhood may result in a wide range of negative physical health problems as well as psychosocial concerns across the life course. The energy balance model, which focuses on achieving an energy deficient state in order to produce weight loss, forms the basis of nearly all weight-loss interventions. Pediatric behavioral weight management interventions exist in many permutations and typically include some combination of contact with the child patient and adult caregiver.
A specific phobia is characterized by an excessive and persistent fear of a specific object or situation that almost always provokes a negative avoidant response. Treatment of specific phobias in children is particularly important because phobias may persist over the course of a lifetime, and may result in other disorders such as anxiety, mood, and substance-use problems. Heritability is thought to play a modest but significant role in the development of specific phobias, with up to one third of the variance of specific phobias explained by genetic factors. This chapter discusses cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and one-session treatment (OST), a specific variant of CBT, as well as the role parents may play in the treatment process. It briefly comments on systematic desensitization, which has historically been used to treat specific phobias in children and adolescents.
This chapter provides a description of peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS), a research-based classwide intervention that can be used as part of core instruction linked to multitiered models of prevention and intervention. During the past two decades, PALS has been developed and evaluated for children in prekindergarten to high school, and separate programs for reading and mathematics. PALS researchers worked for several consecutive years during the late 1990s with kindergarten teachers in Nashville to develop Kindergarten-PALS (K-PALS). PALS effects were not moderated by learner type, suggesting that PALS can be used successfully in classrooms in which students with learning disabilities (LD) are included. Each of the K-PALS lessons comprises three parts: a teacher-directed Sound Play activity that provides phonological awareness (PA) practice; a Decoding Lesson that addresses graphemephoneme correspondence (GPC), sight word recognition, decoding, and sentence fluency; and Partner Reading.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by chronic problems with noncompliance and defiance, antagonism, and irritability, typically having an onset in early childhood. Significantly, they are at increased risk of comorbid depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and conduct disorder (CD). Leadbeater and colleagues examined ODD symptoms from adolescence through young adulthood and found further support for differences in developmental trajectories for men and women. The comorbidity of ODD with behavioral and affective disorders appears to be accounted for by the aforementioned dimensions among the symptoms of ODD. Theories of the development of ODD have focused on parenting practices and/or parent-child relationships. Genetics plays a role in ODD, including behavioral problems and coexisting internalizing difficulties, such as anxiety and depression.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Evidence-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with significant academic and/ or social impairment over time and across settings. Children and adolescents with ADHD are more likely to repeat a grade, to be referred and identified for special education services, suspended, and drop out of school relative to students without disabilities. There is no single risk factor that fully accounts for the development of ADHD. This chapter elucidates the potential causal variables that have been identified, including neurobiological factors, hereditary influences, and environmental toxins. The neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, which are especially prevalent in the prefrontal cortex, seem to play a pivotal role in the development of ADHD. Self-monitoring is a commonly used intervention strategy for students with ADHD that is couched within self-regulation interventions. The most effective treatments are central nervous system (CNS)-stimulant medications, behavior modification, academic interventions, and self-regulation strategies.