This chapter provides an overview of the nonprofit organization in the United States, the main characteristics of nonprofit organizations, and the reality of the nonprofit sector today. It describes the differences between a nonprofit and a for-profit corporation. Nonprofit organizations have existed for many centuries, especially through religious groups or religious-based activities. The nongovernmental sector is growing throughout the world. Increasingly, these organizations are playing key roles in the economic and social contexts of their countries. Unlike private-sector organizations concerned primarily with making a profit, nonprofit organizations are focused on carrying out a specific public-service mission. Successful nonprofit organizations require substantial capability in key areas of management: developing strong boards of directors, recruiting and motivating talented staff and volunteers, creating plans to focus resources on relevant goals and innovative programs, winning the support of diverse stakeholders, raising funds, and wisely managing fiscal and human resources.
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This chapter discusses the term “service delivery” and describes a service delivery system in the context of a nonprofit organization. Servitization is the process whereby an organization develops creative and innovative ways to create a product-service system that integrates value-based products and service offerings. The chapter discusses the roles of client-centeredness, decision making, scheduling, priority setting, effective and efficient flow of services or activities, quality assurance, and continuing quality improvement, and how these factors contribute in their own context to influence positively or negatively the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization. A customer-centric service design is a service delivery system that focuses on providing the best quality service possible to customers or clients or the service target, based on a service concept, a service decision path, service sustainability, and service quality. The chapter explains the relationship between service delivery and financial sustainability.
This chapter defines the concept of social marketing and provides some of the common areas for the use of social marketing by nonprofit organizations. The term “social marketing” has been used for several decades to refer to a systematic process of using marketing strategy to influence current behaviors of a target population into a desired behavior in order to positively change a social or community issue. The chapter describes the contents of a social marketing plan. A social marketing plan is a document that justifies the needs for a social marketing campaign, as well as the process of implementation by outlining a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis, a description of the target population, the goals and objectives, an impact statement, the marketing mix strategies, an implementation plan, an evaluation plan, and a budget. The chapter establishes the relationship between social marketing and financial sustainability.
This book integrates theory and practice, and addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. Chapters address such essential concepts as the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology, individual differences, identity development, individual differences associated with personality, motivation, self-efficacy, stress and coping, injury, decision making, job opportunities, and burnout in the context of human performance. Motivation is likely one of the most critical variables in determining one’s behaviors and ultimate success because it impels them to act or sit still. Self-efficacy is said to influence whether people are optimistic or pessimistic, the goals they select, and their willingness to persist in the face of failure. Stressors fall into one of three possible categories-bioecological, psychointrapersonal, and/or social. Bringing these topics to life are companion “Applying the Concepts” chapters demonstrating how these principles are directly applied in real-life situations. The text focuses on the core theories underpinning sport psychology. Interviews with researchers, coaches, athletes, and other individuals from performance-intensive professions vividly reinforce the book’s content. Additionally, the book contains insights on theories and research findings that students can apply to their own experience.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. It provides Dr. Sachs’s honest and open remarks along with interspersed additions from the authors to introduce the field and its accompanying issues. In explaining his career trajectory, Dr. Sachs recalls earning his undergraduate degree in psychology and then applying to graduate programs in applied behavioral analysis. Dr. Sachs’s somewhat zigzagged trajectory in the field demonstrates the important sport and exercise psychology principle that explains the benefits of focusing on the process rather than the outcome when setting goals. Dr. Sachs added that the United States leads the way in research and writing with regard to sport and exercise psychology, while other countries may be more advanced in the application of that knowledge at the professional levels.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. The topic of decision making has been covered in psychology, economics, and motor learning but addressed very sparsely in sport, exercise, and performance psychology. Rational decision making requires defining the problem, identifying criteria, weighing those criteria, generating alternative solutions, and ultimately computing the optimal decision. The chapter introduces the literature on decision making and provides examples of factors that influence the choices people make. The decision to act, move, or what move to make is decided in the response selection stage, and the final stage is when one’s brain and muscles are organized to make the actual move. The key to improve the decision-making over time is to increase personal awareness of own limitations and keep learning and collecting information from reliable sources.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. This chapter covers the three primary positions held by people with a sport and exercise psychology degree; namely, education, research, and consulting, by providing the professionals’ thoughts directly. It addresses certification requirements and students are encouraged to join organizations, attend regional and national conferences, and engage professors regarding research opportunities. In fact, some were studying in one field before engaging with a faculty member in sport psychology that excited their interests and led them toward a new career. This is something all students should be aware of as it is easy to develop tunnel vision toward one job, to find that their true talents may be better suited for a different field of study. Many opportunities exist for students to know more about a field through professional organizations. To become a certified consultant through Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) organization, individuals must complete coursework and a mentored experience.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. The idea that people are born with certain abilities and traits which predispose them for success in any given area explains the nature approach. This perspective proposes a limit to one’s athletic-, exercise-, or performance-related prowess based on available genes. These studies cite differences in endurance capacity, muscle performance, hemodynamics, as well as metabolism, anthropometry, and body composition. The case for nurture was made most notably by Dr. Ericsson through his discussion of deliberate practice. Similarly, he cites Roe’s research, which found many eminent scientists to have intelligence quotient (IQs) below the average of other PhDs, claiming one’s success in any field of study is likely in part due to capacity but also hard work.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. This chapter addresses the theories of arousal and performance, in addition to coping styles and strategies used to handle life’s minor and major stressors. It briefly addresses the social facilitation theory, drive theory, inverted-U theory, and individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) theory. From a transactional perspective, people believe that coping is a dynamic process, involving interactions with internal and external factors. They believe that the coping strategies can change depending on the context. In addition to understanding the consistency or inconsistency in coping strategy preference, it is also important to understand how these strategies are categorized. The most common categorizations include problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant. Problem-focused strategies include problem solving, planning, information-seeking, increasing effort, communicating, changing technique, and changing behavior. Emotion-focused strategies include relaxation, acceptance, wishful thinking, positive self-talk, visualization, and humor. Avoidance strategies are blaming others, denial, behavioral avoidance, making excuses, and doing nothing.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. Self-efficacy is said to influence whether people are optimistic or pessimistic, the goals they select, and their willingness to persist in the face of failure. Bandura’s Self-efficacy Theory presumes that efficacy beliefs are influenced by four possible variables, which he termed as performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and physiological states. A meta-analysis of sport-specific studies found a positive, moderate relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and sport performance. Vealey conceptualized a sport-confidence model, which explained sport-confidence as the belief or degree of certainty individuals possess regarding their chances of success overall in sport and in any particular moment. Fear of failure has been discussed as a personality disposition leading individuals to focus on the perceived connection between failure and aversive consequences.