This book provides a standard that reflects the basic elements of the 11-Step Standard Procedure; and the Standard 3-Pronged EMDR Protocol as they are applied to different populations. The diverse population includes children and adolescents; couples; clients suffering with complex post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders; clients with anxiety; clients who demonstrate addictive behaviors; clients who deal with pain; clinicians themselves. The book serves as a basis to encourage research into these various applications for EMDR. It is divided into seven parts. Part I is devoted to the scripted EMDR protocols such as olfactory stimulation, which are used to develop resources for children and adolescents who may have suffered traumatic events in their life. The protocols take into account the particular difficulties of this developmental group and help minimize common difficulties and major hurdles. Part II describes scripted EMDR protocols designed by couples therapists and sex therapists to further the progress of their patients precisely targeting templates of relational interaction, anxiety, or sexual dysfunction. Part III concerns the scripted protocols for dissociative disorders and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. The protocols represent the structured scripted efforts of many trauma therapists over a considerable number of years. Parts IV and V of the book address the concretization of much needed scripts for the EMDR treatment of addictions and pain—two interconnected public health worries. Part VI looks at the world of people’s adaptation to fears and tackles the usage of scripted protocols to detoxify the impact of specific phobias. Part VII demonstrates the usage of scripted EMDR protocols in clinician care and in the management of secondary post-traumatic stress disorder and vicarious traumatization.
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The Butterfly Hug was originated and developed by Lucina Artigas during her work performed with the survivors of Hurricane Pauline in Acapulco, Mexico, 1997. For the origination and development of this method, Lucina Artigas was honored in 2000 with the Creative Innovation Award by the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) International Association. By 2009, The Butterfly Hug had become standard practice for clinicians in the field while working with survivors of man-made and natural catastrophes. The “Butterfly Hug” provides a way to self-administer dual attention stimulation (DAS) for an individual or for group work. This chapter explains many uses for the Butterfly Hug. During the EMDR Standard Protocol, some clinicians have also used it with adults and children to facilitate primary processing of a fundamental traumatic memory or memories. Use of the Butterfly Hug in session with the therapist can be a self-soothing experience for many trauma-therapy clients.
The standard Safe Place Protocol uses a word for cuing and self-cuing. For the last 3 years, the author has used olfactory stimulation with more than 30 children and adolescents to cue the Safe Place and resources installed with the Resource Development and Installation (RDI) Protocol. The effectiveness of olfactory cues to assist traumatized children in accessing previously installed resources for self-regulation may be associated with the relationship between trauma and thalamic activity. Individuals with simple post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might show an increase in thalamic activity and those with complex PTSD, a decrease in thalamic activity. For many years, aromatherapy has been used as an adjunctive form of therapy in mental health. Before establishing the Safe Place, it is important that you explain to the child and the caregivers what eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is and how it works, especially the different forms of bilateral stimulation (BLS).
- Go to chapter: Using Olfactory Stimulation With Children to Cue Resource Development and Installation (RDI)
According to Korn and Leeds, the main goal of developing and installing resources is to increase the client’s capacity for self-regulation by enhancing their ability to access memory networks that contain adaptive and functional information. The Resource Development and Installation (RDI) Protocol should only be considered based on specific criteria that suggest it is needed for the individual child. The purpose of doing RDI is to increase the child’s ability to change state adaptively and tolerate disturbance so the child can prepare for trauma reprocessing. Traumatized children deserve to be treated with the full eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) reprocessing protocol so that they can make a complete recovery. Because of the short attention span in children, this protocol may take two sessions to complete. Often, school-aged children can do the protocol in one session.
The Resource Connection for Children is a search to support children in finding their own unique ways to feel the safety, confidence, and relief of making a solid connection with their therapists in the here and now of the therapeutic session. These are their principle supports as they enter and go through the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) processing. The term Resource Connection, as well as the idea of a continuation of resources threaded through the EMDR Standard Protocol, was first used by Brurit Laub in her work with adults. Instead of asking the child to remember an event as people do with adults, the therapist’s task is to be aware of the child’s resources throughout the protocol. The therapist then focuses and installs sensory, emotional, and cognitive aspects of this resource immediately with bilateral stimulation (BLS).
The Absorption Technique for Children is a protocol that was derived from the work of Arne Hofmann who based his work on an adaptation of “The Wedging Technique”. The absorption technique for children is a resource technique that supports children in creating resources for present issues and future challenges such as dealing with a difficult teacher or handling a disagreement with a classmate and so forth. This chapter uses resource installation for stressful situations. It includes summary sheets to facilitate gathering information, client documentation, and quick retrieval of salient information while formulating a treatment plan. The absorption technique, and the constant installation of present orientation and safety (CIPOS) technique, are excellent ways to encourage children to work with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) step-by-step even if they are not prepared to work with the worst issue in the beginning.
- Go to chapter: The Method of Constant Installation of Present Orientation and Safety (CIPOS) for Children
The Method of Constant Installation of Present Orientation and Safety (CIPOS) for Children. The fundamental idea of the Method of Constant Installation of Present Orientation and Safety (CIPOS) is to reinforce a client’s current sense of security and stability using bilateral stimulation. The CIPOS method is helpful in assisting children to overcome their fear of their traumatic memories. Drawing and active movement is helpful when working with younger children and for the older, active child as well. Alternatives to catching the ball in the CIPOS Protocol for Children could be using the Safe Place to interrupt the process, or drawing a Safe Place and using the picture. The CIPOS method can motivate the child to tolerate stressful memories or fear of the future and can be a very helpful bridge between resource work and trauma work.
The Maze, as a metaphor for a place where problems live and are solved, was developed out of the necessity of working with children who were too anxious, embarrassed, or afraid to experience the uncomfortable feelings around their problem areas. Such children often present as actively oppositional or sullenly silent. It was necessary to find a distancing technique that was both nonthreatening and interesting to gradually establish communication between therapist and child about issues that cause them discomfort. The main purpose of the maze is to gradually sensitize the child to the possibility of exploring the defended inner space where unpleasant, scary emotions dwell. The maze is a concept with which most children are acquainted. They have experienced both feelings of frustration and competence as they followed the convoluted lines with their pencils in workbooks. The elements of the protocol for maze include the following: maze, drawings and footsteps.
- Go to chapter: EMDR Assessment and Desensitization Phases With Children: Step-by-Step Session Directions
This chapter describes the procedural steps of the Assessment Phase and Desensitization Phase of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Standard Protocol with detailed scripts for steering a child through each phase. It includes summary sheets to facilitate gathering information, client documentation, and quick retrieval of salient information while formulating a treatment plan. Assessment phase note section starts with Target Identification; this is a continuation of what began during the Client History and Treatment Planning Phase. The therapist should already have some idea of what the child may choose given previous target identification procedures such as Mapping and Graphing or other procedures for eliciting targets with children. Once the target has been selected, the therapist continues with Image, negative cognition (NC), positive cognition (PC), validity of cognition (VOC), emotion, subjective units of disturbance (SUD), and body sensation to move on to the desensitization phase.