Behavioral-Motor-Technical (BMT)-based intervention attempts to help support an athlete’s mental game using exposure, confrontation, threshold, and learning principles to improve attention, motor control, and self-confidence, as well as reduce nervousness associated with pressure moments of competition. BMT-based intervention is a direct approach to mental training (MT). Conceptually, BMT MT’s utility and potential to enhance psychological performance is based on motor learning, technical repetition, and exposure/habituation principles. The central nervous system mechanisms that are thought to be associated with BMT-MT-induced habituation or inoculation to competitive stress are discussed under brain-based interventions of the athlete’s profile (AP) brain-heart-mind-body conceptual model and construct bases. The goal of BTM-MT is to consolidate optimum technical and motor patterns in long-term procedural memory as well as repetitively attempt to demonstrate peak technical performance under greatest situational pressure, first in training and then during official competition.
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- Go to chapter: Construct Validity in Evidence-Based Applied Sport Psychology: Integrative Mind–Body Bases of Peak Psychological Performance
Construct Validity in Evidence-Based Applied Sport Psychology: Integrative Mind–Body Bases of Peak Psychological Performance
The establishment of construct validity in the context of sport psychological assessment and intervention requires the identification of valid functional mind-body origins or bases of athlete psychological responses and associated performance tendencies during training or competition. Finding additional links between heart rate deceleration (HRD) and concomitant brain activity parameters leading up to action that are also associated with performance outcome would be an extension finding in the construct validation process. Irrespective of whether a practitioner subscribes to the Brain-Heart-Mind-Body-Motor (BHMBM) and its interrelated Athlete’s Profile (AP) and Theory of Critical Moments (TCM) models of peak performance, construct validity should be considered when deciding what assessment instrument to use or intervention to apply. The chapter also presents a comprehensive and integrative explication of key components of the Carlstedt Protocol’s (CP) validated athlete assessment and intervention system.
One of the goals of the intake process is to establish rapport with an athlete, a psychological dynamic that facilitates trust and motivation to participate in eventual assessments and interventions. In an evidence-based approach, the initial intake session is structured and standardized. Components of the intake include the initial response to a client who is interested in sport psychological services, preintake assessment test battery, the first face-to-face contact and discussion of the initial test results, on-the-playing-field evaluation, and the culminating consulting and intervention strategy. This chapter focuses on to the intake session conversation, and provides some additional information on the Internet-based test battery and its relevance to the consulting process. The failure to extend the intake evaluation process to the playing field can have lasting deleterious consequences for an athlete and negatively impact a practitioner’s effectiveness and credibility.
- Go to chapter: The Athlete’s Profile Model: Primary Higher Order Psychological Mediators of Peak Performance
This chapter presents the athlete’s profile (AP) in an applied context and reviews the primary higher order (PHO) measures that it encompasses and their impact on performance. It describes test instruments, applications/administration, psychometrics and methodology. The AP model is a conceptual and explanatory framework that predicts athlete psychological performance tendencies during pressure situations of competition. The conceptual origins of the AP can be traced to the High Risk Model of Threat Perception (HRMTP) and its isolation of the three so-called subject variables, hypnotic susceptibility (HS), neuroticism (N), and repressive coping (RC). These measures were shown to interact to mediate maladaptive cognitive processing/attention, physiological reactivity, and subliminal coping and resulting symptoms and/or illness. As such, the AP battery should only be administered in the context of a comprehensive athlete evaluation and intervention efficacy testing process.