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- Go to article: Brave New Psychiatry and the Idealization of Nonplaces: A Critical Discourse Analysis
In this article, a document presenting a planned psychiatric building in Sweden was analyzed using critical discourse analysis. Focus was on how biomedical perspectives, administration, logistics, and efficiency is materialized in the building. The building is planned without personal consulting rooms or office places. Text and images were understood with reference to Augé's concept of nonplaces; places that are void of meaning. Outpatient practice is portrayed as equal, neglecting power imbalances, diversity, and context. Clinicians and clients are expected to be in transit in an environment centered on transparency and technology, enabling surveillance and control. Encounters and dialogues are never mentioned, while electroconvulsive therapy has its own place both in the document and in the building. Technology is central and presented as necessary for future needs. The idea that current psychiatry represents a story of constant progress, providing precise diagnosis and effective treatment is materialized in the building.
Persuasive design, the use of behavioral psychology in digital devices and applications to alter human behavior, is employed in entertainment and educational technologies that occupy a great proportion of the lives of children and adolescents. A primary purpose of persuasive design is to increase the time spent using social media, video game, and other entertainment technologies in order to increase business revenue. This adds to children's and adolescents' health risks, as excessive recreational screen time has been associated with both physical (sleep, weight) and mental health (depression, anxiety, compulsive use, and inattention) issues for children and adolescents. Given the potential for negative health outcomes, it is necessary for the field of psychology to acknowledge, educate, and take action against the use of persuasive design in platforms typically used by children and adolescents.
- Go to article: Perception of Ethical Issues Among the Law Enforcement and Firefighter Psychologists From Romania
Ethical psychological practice is essential for beneficiaries’ protection and welfare. This survey research addressed a specific issue, namely compliance with and beliefs about ethical principles and standards of psychologists from the Romanian national law enforcement and firefighting organizations. A total of 140 psychologists, 60.08% of target group members, rated frequency and ethical character of 139 ethically questionable behaviors. Several positive ethical elements were found as lack of almost universal behaviors and many rare behaviors (46.04%). Among the ethical problems found were counted: behaviors and beliefs related to the involvement in ethical practice promotion among psychologists and to the interaction with coordinating and homologous psychologists in the professional or ethical impasse situations. The highest quality ratings of resources for ethical practice guiding and training were made for Code of Deontology and the lowest for legal cases. Several solutions were proposed to improve ethical professional awareness and practice of target group members. The present research showed the difficulty of finding benchmarks to interpret results of an ethical research and the need to approach ethical issues not only from the quantitative view but also from qualitative and/or transcultural view.
- Go to article: School Bullying Case Law: Frequency and Outcomes for School Level, Protected Status, and Bullying Actions
School Bullying Case Law: Frequency and Outcomes for School Level, Protected Status, and Bullying Actions
Purpose: During the past decade, concern with student bullying incidents has increased. When schools do not halt bullying, victims increasingly choose litigation as a remedy. Although the professional literature identifies the pertinent factors associated with bullying victimization, the available legal analyses have not kept pace. To identify focus areas for preventing bullying litigation, this study quantifies the frequency and outcomes for bullying cases disaggregated by the victims’ school level, protected status classification, and types of bullying actions. Methodology: We analyzed the 239 student bullying court decisions for the 20-year period 1995–2014, identifying the outcomes for each specific legal claim as well as each victim’s school level, protected status classification, and the types of bullying actions. Outcomes were conclusive if the plaintiff or defendant decisively prevailed and inconclusive if additional legal action was required for resolution. The analysis identified the most plaintiff-favorable outcome for each case and disaggregated by these three variables. Findings: The frequency of bullying cases was highest among middle school students, students asserting gender-based claims, and students experiencing both verbal and physical bullying actions. Conclusive outcomes strongly favored district defendants. Conversely, claims based on perceived sexual orientation resulted in the highest rates of inconclusive outcomes. Implications: The pro-district outcomes skew suggests that school administrators should focus on bullying prevention as a matter of educational effectiveness. To the extent that legal defensibility is a significant factor, education leaders should focus their efforts on reducing bullying of middle school students and students displaying gender nonconformity.
Ethical training is a critical element of graduate education in Psychology. The importance of acculturation to the ethical guidelines of the profession cannot be minimized. Simultaneously, in North America at least, sensitivity to diversity is an important directive in our education of future clinicians. Consequently, it makes sense that understanding international Psychology ethics codes would be advantageous, to at least highlight the cultural context and relativity of ethics codes in general. Professors in Canada and the United States who teach ethics in their respective graduate schools were surveyed about their teaching of such codes and their opinions on the matter. Differences were found between Canada and the United States, although low response rates were noteworthy. The response data is examined qualitatively. Possible explanations for these findings include the possibility that teaching international ethics codes is seen as of limited importance or the use of online questionnaires is not optimal for such endeavors.