This book highlights the enormity of the problems of child maltreatment and their relationship to poverty and other social ills. The first chapter introduces the reader to the issues that impact children, such as poverty, lack of education, and myriad other problems of child maltreatment including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect; as well as parental substance abuse and mental health problems. This is followed by a chapter that presents the private efforts to provide services to abused and neglected children that have transitioned through the years into significantly greater governmental roles. Chapter 3 addresses the fact that the majority of families known to the child welfare system live in poverty, and examines the relationship between poverty and child abuse and neglect, and the increased risk of coming into contact with child protection agencies. While the fourth chapter discusses relationship between the educational system and the child welfare system, the fifth and sixth examine the health issues of families known to child protection agencies, and children in the child welfare system and the juvenile justice system referred to as “crossover” or “dual status” youth. The court system plays a critical role in foster care. Adoption from child welfare agencies typically occurs after foster care placement when it becomes apparent that birth parents will be unable to reunite with their children. It can be extremely traumatic for birth parents to lose their children to the foster care system, and then to adoption.