Neurodevelopmental disorders are conditions that affect the functionality of the brain. With many neurodevelopmental disorders, the signs and symptoms most often begin to show when a child is young, usually around preschool years. This chapter follows this pattern and includes three cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Family dynamics and school considerations are also included with these cases given the ages of the clients. Questions for consideration are included.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a disorder in which people have recurring, unwanted thoughts, ideas, or sensations (obsessions) that make them feel driven to do something repetitively (compulsions). This chapter contains three cases of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in three adolescent males. While the clients in each of these cases have symptoms that lead to a
DSM-5(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition) diagnosis in the same category, this chapter highlights how the disorder often presents in different ways and with different obsessive thoughts (e.g., sexual orientation obsession). Obsessive-compulsive disorder may co-occur with Tic disorder and a case that demonstrates this link is included. Questions for consideration are also included.
Somatic symptom disorder is characterized by an extreme focus on physical symptoms (e.g., pain, weakness, fatigue) that causes major emotional distress and problems functioning. This chapter features two cases of somatic symptom disorder in two adult women. While their symptoms may not be traceable to a physical cause, they do cause excessive and disproportionate levels of distress and dysfunction.
Race, ethnicity, and culture influence client identity and life circumstances. Other factors, such as gender and gender identity, sexual orientation, age, socioeconomic status, religion, and ability may also play into the context of a client’s mental health or personal issues. The four cases in this chapter feature cultural aspects that have a significant role in the treatment and conceptualization by their clinicians. Culturally competent clinicians practice cultural humility and understand that clients’ backgrounds influence the ways in which they view the world and that the clinician’s role must change to accommodate these perspectives.
While the occasional experience of anxiety is a typical part of life, people with anxiety disorders often have intense and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. This chapter contains three cases of anxiety disorders in two adult males and one adolescent female. Generalized anxiety disorder is highlighted in this chapter as well as the less common, selective mutism diagnosis. While the clients in these cases have symptoms that lead to a
DSM-5(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition) diagnosis in the same category, these cases highlight how cultural factors and family of origins issues may exacerbate anxiety-related symptoms. Questions for consideration are also included.
Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and often by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. This chapter contains three cases of depressive disorders in adults, including major depressive disorder and dysthymia. These cases illuminate how depression manifests in different people with different backgrounds, including a young Caucasian woman, young biracial man, and a middle-aged woman. While the clients in these cases have symptoms that lead to a
DSM-5(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) diagnosis in the same category, the cases highlight how medical concerns may complicate symptoms, as well as family of origins issues that may exacerbate symptoms. Questions for consideration are also included.
Trauma and stressor-related disorders are a group of emotional and behavioral problems that may result from traumatic and stressful experiences such as exposure to physical or emotional violence or pain, including abuse, neglect, or intense family conflict. This chapter contains five cases related to trauma and stressor-related disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, reactive attachment disorder, and adjustment disorder. The clients in this chapter also includes a broad range of ages and demographics, ranging in age from 8 to 68, and they are urban, rural, and suburban dwellers with a variety of family constellations, strengths, and challenges. Specific traumas related to child sexual abuse and neglect as well as questions for consideration are also included.
Gender dysphoria is the feeling of discomfort or distress that might occur in people whose gender identity differs from their sex assigned at birth or sex-related physical characteristics. The cases in this chapter include two cases of adolescent gender dysphoria. In the first case, the adolescent is considering future transition against the backdrop of family acceptance and cultural issues while the other adolescent highlighted in this chapter has transitioned and manages depression and a history of child abuse. Questions for consideration follow each case.
A paraphilic disorder exists when recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors cause distress and/or impairment to the individual. In some individuals with paraphilic disorder, their sexual satisfaction has entailed personal harm or the risk of harm to others. The cases in this chapter represent studies of sexual sadism and voyeuristic disorder and how each of the men diagnosed with these conditions respond to court-appointed therapy. Questions for consideration follow each case.