The elimination disorders in this chapter involve the inappropriate elimination of urine or feces and are the result of trauma in a midlife female and an adolescent male. This group of disorders includes enuresis, the repeated voiding of urine into inappropriate places, and encopresis, the repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places. Questions for consideration follow the case conceptualizations.
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Gender dysphoria is the feeling of discomfort or distress that might occur in people whose gender identity differs from their sex assigned at birth or sex-related physical characteristics. The cases in this chapter include two cases of adolescent gender dysphoria. In the first case, the adolescent is considering future transition against the backdrop of family acceptance and cultural issues while the other adolescent highlighted in this chapter has transitioned and manages depression and a history of child abuse. Questions for consideration follow each case.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are conditions that affect the functionality of the brain. With many neurodevelopmental disorders, the signs and symptoms most often begin to show when a child is young, usually around preschool years. This chapter follows this pattern and includes three cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Family dynamics and school considerations are also included with these cases given the ages of the clients. Questions for consideration are included.