The Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program and Key Employment and Civil Rights Legislation: Are they Working for People With Disabilities?
This chapter reviews how the practice of Vocational rehabilitation (
This chapter reviews how the practice of Vocational rehabilitation (
Entering or reentering the workforce can be a challenging task for individuals following disabilities. Appropriate use of vocational interest measures in career counseling, however, can facilitate this process. This chapter reviews and familiarizes the readers with the construct of vocational interests, to update them with the most recent advances and new findings in interest research, especially with regard to gender differences in interests and the relationship between interests and performance. It provides a brief description of appropriate interest measures for rehabilitation counseling, their psychometric properties, and their usage. The assessment of interests is the starting point and a critical component in career counseling for clients with disabilities. Following interest assessment and assessments of other important individual characteristics, such as work values, aptitudes, and skills, additional information and resources are provided based on clients’ needs to facilitate their career entry or reentry after disabilities.
For over a century since the beginning of career counseling, the role that primary and secondary occupational and labor market data play in the career counseling and placement process has been recognized. This chapter places occupational and labor market information into a visual model called Labor Market Search to serve as a framework for discussing such data as are applied to individuals with disabilities. It helps to understand the theoretical constructs upon which these data are developed are defining terms emanating from the disciplines developing such information so that rehabilitation professionals and students could be better consumers of such data. The chapter explains occupational and labor market primary and secondary data and sources as they apply to the econometric, ergometric, and ergonometric information needs in career counseling, placement, or related activities. It offers conceptual and analytic methods for integrating such data into the career counseling process for individuals with disabilities.
Women who have disabilities face many challenges that, in combination, can have a unique impact on workforce entry, career decision-making, and employment outcomes. In light of these direct outcomes and the critical roles that work can play in alleviating poverty and increasing quality of life, this chapter adapts a client-focused considering work model to highlight the barriers to work for women with disabilities; discuss ways to assess these barriers; and provide a framework for evaluating the considering work process and incorporating varied interventions to address the unique psychosocial, financial/legal, vocational, and medical barriers to employment for women with disabilities. The chapter provides a broad overview of the demographics of women with disabilities. The client-centered considering work model provides a solid framework for exploring and assessing the career decision-making process for women with disabilities.
It is well documented that youth and adults with mental health disabilities have poorer academic and employment outcomes than their peers without disabilities as well as other groups of individuals with disabilities. It is clearly a complicated path to trace the progression of mental health disorders from childhood into adulthood; so this chapter, views the specific status, challenges, and promising practices from the separate perspectives of youth and adults. It reviews the current vocational status of adults and youth with mental health disorders and identifies challenges to career and employment. The chapter describes promising practices and programs and provides recommendations for future research and practice. Youth and adults with psychiatric disabilities can benefit from a range of policies and programs to empower and support career development and employment opportunities. However, systemic, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers continue to present barriers to full participation in learning and work environments.
Work is the primary organizing structure of life, and the significance of work in the lives of individuals with disabilities has been radically altered over the past half a century. This chapter introduces the centrality of work and discusses the role and importance of work in meeting basic human needs. It identifies specific outcome domains for the three human needs of survival and power, social connection, and self-determination and well-being. The chapter describes the Illinois Work and Well-Being Model and discusses how it can be used to guide rehabilitation counseling case conceptualization. When the centrality of work is the core value guiding vocational rehabilitation services for individuals with disabilities, the rehabilitation counselor is working to increase the individual’s power, social connection, and self-determination. These outcomes can be operationalized by multiple outcomes and cannot be measured by the traditional dichotomous outcomes of employed versus unemployed.
The topic of work analysis is frequently given very limited coverage in textbooks related to occupational development, vocational behavior, rehabilitation counseling, and other rehabilitation healthcare fields; this is truly unfortunate. A comprehensive understanding of the requirements of work is essential to the career development and employment of individuals with disabilities; work analysis provides the foundation for building organizational processes that are effective, inclusive, and legally defensible. This chapter provides the reader with a thorough understanding of work analysis through coverage of its definition, history, methodological considerations, and applications. The workplace of today is a very different entity from what existed just a decade ago. Work analysis is a systematic process used to understand the nature of work. Although there are many methodological considerations to be contemplated and numerous existing work analysis tools available to the practitioner, the methods chosen must be appropriate for the purposes at hand.
The work of Rehabilitation professional (
There are currently six primary government systems of occupational classification used to classify civilian work in the United States. This chapter discusses the systems most pertinent to vocational guidance and Transferable skills analysis (
Perhaps more than any other commonly assessed attribute, personality comes closest to being understood as the essence of who we are as human beings. This chapter provides an overview of the major theoretical framework for understanding personality development and expression and provides research findings that highlight the significance of personality development across life domains, including work. It identifies the interconnectedness of personality, work, and health. One of the most challenging areas facing rehabilitation counselors today is helping individuals connect with participation outcomes related to productive functioning at home and in the community, meaningful social interactions and relationships, and healthy work. Recent research has provided strong support for not only examining and leveraging traditional areas of personality but also using emerging personality-related factors such as developmental work personality and core self-evaluation to increase rehabilitation outcomes, including career development and work.
Employment is central to one’s identity, sense of achievement, and the overall quality of life. This chapter explains how and why employment is central to an individual’s life. It defines career counseling and explains the role of the rehabilitation counselor in the career counseling process. The chapter describes the stages of change and interventions that are commonly used in the career-counseling process. The role of the rehabilitation counselor in the career-counseling process is critical in assisting individuals with disabilities as they navigate through their journey in the pursuit of competitive employment. Rehabilitation counselors who embrace an active role in addressing these concerns, which are often perceived as barriers by the individual with a disability, will have a greater chance of increasing their likelihood of successful outcomes and growth. Strategies to facilitate change as well as frameworks that are more conducive to the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities are introduced.
Vocational evaluation is best done through a focus on the strengths of the individual with a disability. This chapter helps the reader understand the role of vocational evaluation in the vocational rehabilitation process. It explains the theoretical frameworks for vocational evaluation and the different levels of vocational evaluation. The chapter discusses the basic approaches utilized in vocational evaluation. It outlines the importance of vocational evaluation, especially utilizing the vocational counseling approach with a focus on establishing a strong working alliance and assessing values, interests, interpersonal skills, and personality traits. The chapter provides a theoretical framework that can be used to guide the information and analysis of information obtained during the evaluation process. It presents a basic overview of the three levels of evaluation as they relate to vocational evaluation and rehabilitation. Finally, the chapter provides a brief overview of the techniques and procedures used in vocational evaluation.
Job satisfaction is commonly conceptualized as an affective variable that results from an assessment of one’s job experiences. This chapter provides a brief overview of the theories and empirical research that have shaped our understanding of the job satisfaction construct. It presents an overview of the definition and measurement of job satisfaction, the consequences associated with job satisfaction, and its antecedents. The chapter discusses the research that focuses specifically on the job satisfaction of people with disabilities, including the unique challenges that they face and ideas for rehabilitation and career counselors, who help people with disabilities to find satisfying work. Individuals with disabilities have traditionally been overlooked as viable contributors to the workplace. Rehabilitation counselors have the enviable job of helping individuals overcome barriers, so that more people with disabilities might enjoy satisfying work—which leads to a host of positive outcomes—improving work lives, family life, and well-being.
Disability is experienced by Americans in every corner of America. This chapter provides and discusses national statistics on the educational, employment, and financial experiences of people with disabilities in the United States (U.S). The statistics presented are calculated from the American Community Survey (
Career development and work adjustment theories continue to evolve as researchers and practitioners explore what influences work integration and adjustment. These descriptions of career and work adjustment theories bring to light the complexity of career development and adjustment. This chapter provides an introduction to the relevant theories of career development and work adjustment that are pertinent to rehabilitation practitioners. It provides detailed descriptions of the historically important and foundational theories of John Holland and Donald Super that focus primarily on career development. The chapter then introduces the career construction theory, a metatheory aimed at modernizing career counseling to better meet the needs of a more fluid labor market. It describes the theories that focus on the process of work adjustment, a process that we feel is often overlooked and underdeveloped in both the rehabilitation and the vocational research and literature.
Work values, such as security, prestige, and feelings of accomplishment and belonging, are what people want and expect from work. Values are central to our understanding of the reasons why people work and the type of work people design for others to do. This chapter reviews the history of the construct of work values. It explores the usefulness of assessing work values in rehabilitation contexts. The chapter considers the challenges of assessing work values in rehabilitation contexts and reviews the relevant characteristics and basic psychometric properties of several popular measures of work values. Correspondence (or match) between employee work values and employer reinforcers can predict numerous vocational outcomes, including job satisfaction, occupational commitment, career choice, and career success. Understanding and assessing the motivation to work is an important priority for successfully guiding clients into satisfying work.
The state–federal Vocational rehabilitation (
Cognitive information processing (
This chapter presents some of the opportunities and challenges faced by people with physical disabilities in obtaining employment consistent with their career aspirations, interests, and capabilities. It helps the reader recognize employment issues related to people with physical disabilities. The chapter discusses the human capital theory and the dualistic theory of labor markets. It describes how education affects lifetime earnings and employability. The chapter explains the impact of the great recession and be familiar with successful employment strategies for people with physical disabilities. Although there has been significant amount of research conducted over the past 50 years in rehabilitation counseling and job placement, most of this has been descriptive in nature, with many of these efforts attempting to determine relationships among existing data rather than a purposeful approach to define what types of intervention or services appear to work best with what specific populations, under what specific conditions.
This chapter describes the landscape of federal mandates for serving transition-age youth and students with disabilities as outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (
Today, society is seeing and hearing about individuals with significant disabilities working in their local communities. For many individuals with disabilities, this goal has been achieved with a vocational rehabilitation service option called supported employment and its extension called customized employment. This chapter presents the definitions of both supported employment and customized employment as characterized by Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act. The chapter presents two models: supported employment, which is an evidence-based practice backed by decades of empirical research; and customized employment, a promising practice gaining more momentum as a viable vocational service option. Both offer opportunities for real jobs for real pay for individuals with severe disabilities. Despite the empirical evidence for these models and against segregated services, we have far to go before real work for real pay is an option for the majority of individuals with severe disabilities.
Poverty can be defined as economic deprivation. This chapter provides an explanation of the process through which a poor individual is at higher risk for acquiring a disability or chronic health problem. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the connection between poverty and disability: poverty as a risk factor for disability; the impact of poverty-related psychological factors on career development and health; and the impact of social role devaluation on individuals who are poor and have a disability. The second part discusses how poverty and disability affect career counseling and job placement and what counselors can do to assist persons who are poor and disabled to make effective career decisions and obtain employment. The chapter enables the reader to implement counseling strategies that can ameliorate the impact of disability and poverty on career counseling and job placement.
Vocational rehabilitation (
Social cognitive career theory (
The nature and needs of the American disability community have changed dramatically over the past 30 years, and people with emerging disabilities are a growing yet underserved clientele for vocational rehabilitation (
The vocational rehabilitation profession in the United States has existed for a century. In that time, the focus on improving vocational functioning toward employment for Persons with disabilities (PwD) has consistently been a priority in the quest to maximize independence. This chapter offers essential knowledge needed to successfully improve employment among ethnic minority populations of PwD. It discusses the importance of conducting race- and ethnicity-related research and describes the working-age population of ethnic minorities with disabilities. The chapter explains the triple threat phenomena of race, poverty, and disability along with the concept of intersectionality. It discusses the differences in employment outcomes of persons with disabilities based on ethnicity and describes the role of ethnicity in employment discrimination due to disability. The chapter helps the reader identify several strategies that vocational professionals can use to work effectively with ethnic minority populations of individuals with disabilities seeking employment.