The Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program and Key Employment and Civil Rights Legislation: Are they Working for People With Disabilities?
This chapter reviews how the practice of Vocational rehabilitation (
This chapter reviews how the practice of Vocational rehabilitation (
Entering or reentering the workforce can be a challenging task for individuals following disabilities. Appropriate use of vocational interest measures in career counseling, however, can facilitate this process. This chapter reviews and familiarizes the readers with the construct of vocational interests, to update them with the most recent advances and new findings in interest research, especially with regard to gender differences in interests and the relationship between interests and performance. It provides a brief description of appropriate interest measures for rehabilitation counseling, their psychometric properties, and their usage. The assessment of interests is the starting point and a critical component in career counseling for clients with disabilities. Following interest assessment and assessments of other important individual characteristics, such as work values, aptitudes, and skills, additional information and resources are provided based on clients’ needs to facilitate their career entry or reentry after disabilities.
For over a century since the beginning of career counseling, the role that primary and secondary occupational and labor market data play in the career counseling and placement process has been recognized. This chapter places occupational and labor market information into a visual model called Labor Market Search to serve as a framework for discussing such data as are applied to individuals with disabilities. It helps to understand the theoretical constructs upon which these data are developed are defining terms emanating from the disciplines developing such information so that rehabilitation professionals and students could be better consumers of such data. The chapter explains occupational and labor market primary and secondary data and sources as they apply to the econometric, ergometric, and ergonometric information needs in career counseling, placement, or related activities. It offers conceptual and analytic methods for integrating such data into the career counseling process for individuals with disabilities.
Women who have disabilities face many challenges that, in combination, can have a unique impact on workforce entry, career decision-making, and employment outcomes. In light of these direct outcomes and the critical roles that work can play in alleviating poverty and increasing quality of life, this chapter adapts a client-focused considering work model to highlight the barriers to work for women with disabilities; discuss ways to assess these barriers; and provide a framework for evaluating the considering work process and incorporating varied interventions to address the unique psychosocial, financial/legal, vocational, and medical barriers to employment for women with disabilities. The chapter provides a broad overview of the demographics of women with disabilities. The client-centered considering work model provides a solid framework for exploring and assessing the career decision-making process for women with disabilities.
It is well documented that youth and adults with mental health disabilities have poorer academic and employment outcomes than their peers without disabilities as well as other groups of individuals with disabilities. It is clearly a complicated path to trace the progression of mental health disorders from childhood into adulthood; so this chapter, views the specific status, challenges, and promising practices from the separate perspectives of youth and adults. It reviews the current vocational status of adults and youth with mental health disorders and identifies challenges to career and employment. The chapter describes promising practices and programs and provides recommendations for future research and practice. Youth and adults with psychiatric disabilities can benefit from a range of policies and programs to empower and support career development and employment opportunities. However, systemic, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers continue to present barriers to full participation in learning and work environments.
The aging population is at a state of development that is not as focused on employment, and thus has difficulty finding its place in a society that defines people by their careers. Research is needed on the issues of aging workers, such as training needs, career transition issues, and retirement planning. Research is also needed on which accommodations, workplace modifications, and changes to policies and practices positively impact the retention and continued productivity of an aging workforce. Counselor practitioners are in a unique position to contribute to needed research design conceptualization, metrics, and analyses to test the multiplicity of interventions we will be exploring in the coming years to keep our aging workforce healthy and intellectually engaged in the employment environment. Counselors are experientially qualified to provide the needed services to keep this population productive and more fully engaged in their communities and continuing employment.
Work is the primary organizing structure of life, and the significance of work in the lives of individuals with disabilities has been radically altered over the past half a century. This chapter introduces the centrality of work and discusses the role and importance of work in meeting basic human needs. It identifies specific outcome domains for the three human needs of survival and power, social connection, and self-determination and well-being. The chapter describes the Illinois Work and Well-Being Model and discusses how it can be used to guide rehabilitation counseling case conceptualization. When the centrality of work is the core value guiding vocational rehabilitation services for individuals with disabilities, the rehabilitation counselor is working to increase the individual’s power, social connection, and self-determination. These outcomes can be operationalized by multiple outcomes and cannot be measured by the traditional dichotomous outcomes of employed versus unemployed.
The topic of work analysis is frequently given very limited coverage in textbooks related to occupational development, vocational behavior, rehabilitation counseling, and other rehabilitation healthcare fields; this is truly unfortunate. A comprehensive understanding of the requirements of work is essential to the career development and employment of individuals with disabilities; work analysis provides the foundation for building organizational processes that are effective, inclusive, and legally defensible. This chapter provides the reader with a thorough understanding of work analysis through coverage of its definition, history, methodological considerations, and applications. The workplace of today is a very different entity from what existed just a decade ago. Work analysis is a systematic process used to understand the nature of work. Although there are many methodological considerations to be contemplated and numerous existing work analysis tools available to the practitioner, the methods chosen must be appropriate for the purposes at hand.
This chapter presents a family attachment network model to describe the adaptation of military families during the stress of deployment and their adjustment during the reintegration process. The family attachment network consists of multiple relationships existing at multiple system levels (e.g., individual, dyadic, subsystem, and system-wide interaction patterns), each of which has rules and attributes that are distinct and do not exist at other levels, yet are inextricably intertwined with other levels and the larger system. Similarly, within the family system, each attachment relationship is unique, such that a child’s attachment behaviors toward different caregivers can vary, siblings can demonstrate different attachment strategies with the same caregiver, and parent child attachment relationships often diverge from spousal attachment patterns. A central assumption of the proposed model is that attachment relationships and family systems are fundamental contexts for risk and resilience between military members and their families during the deployment cycle.
The work of Rehabilitation professional (