The neuropsychiatric consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are many and varied, but include problems such as depression, mania, affective lability, anxiety, apathy, psychosis, aggression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, among others. This chapter briefly describes the neuropsychiatric disturbances and their pharmacological treatments. It reviews a description of the principles of pretreatment evaluation and the pharmacotherapy of neuropsychiatric disturbances after TBI. Emotional disturbances, including mood disorders and disorders of affect, are common consequences of TBI, interfere with rehabilitation and recovery from TBI, and contribute substantially to disability and functional limitations. Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder, may develop following TBI and may be a source of substantial morbidity for persons with these problems. Irritability is among the most common form of emotional dyscontrol after TBI, and refers both to an internal experience as well as overt expressions reflecting that experience.