This book brings together the work of experts from a variety of fields such as adult development, adult education, family science, family therapy and counseling, gerontology, psychology, social work, and sociology. It is organized into four sections, each of which contains chapters reflecting a given theme as it pertains to grandparenting. Section one explores the breadth of the grandparent role from multiple theoretical perspectives, explores both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in the study of grandparenting. It examines cohort effects and emphasizes the multigenerational developmental contexts in which grandparents and grandchildren are situated. In addition, it presents variations on grandparenting: grandfathers, great-grandparenting, and step-grandparents. Section two focuses on the diversity among grandparents, examining such issues as variations in sexual orientation in such persons, grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, and changing gender roles among grandparents. Section three examines the difficulties and challenges that grandparents face in enacting their roles as well as the resources and strengths they bring to bear. It discusses the impact of having to cope with both acute and chronic illness on intergenerational relationships, the design and implementation of interventions to positively affect emotional functioning. It discusses the clinical case study approaches to helping grandparents, resilience and resourcefulness in the face of stress. Section four emphasizes the societal and cultural aspects of grandparenting, exploring issues of race and ethnicity, grandparent education, global grandparenting, and many dimensions of social policy as they relate to grandparents. The last chapter pulls the material together in presenting a multidimensional, multileveled, and dynamic picture of grandparenting stressing the influence of evolving historical and interpersonal contexts on such persons and their grandchildren. It also offers suggestions for future research over the next two decades.
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- Go to article: Psychometric Characteristics of the Depressive Cognition Scale in African American Women
Depression in African-American women frequently goes unnoticed and untreated since commonly used depression scales fail to focus on early symptom recognition, do not address contextual factors, and lack adequate psychometric testing in African-American women. This analysis of the Depressive Cognition Scale was conducted with 213 African-American female caregivers and noncaregivers. Alpha coefficients for both groups (α ‘s = .75 and .87) showed internal consistency. Correlations with resourcefulness, depression, and daily hassles scales in the expected directions demonstrated construct validity (R’s = −.36, .26, and .31, respectively). Factor structures for caregivers and noncaregivers differed, suggesting certain depressive cognitions were strongly integrated into the caregiver role. As a reliable and valid measure of depressive cognitions, the DCS would be useful for early detection of depression in African-American women.
Depression is prevalent in young and middle-aged diabetic women. Although cognitive depressive symptoms precede the development of depression, there is no screening instrument to measure these symptoms in diabetic patients. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Depressive Cognition Scale (DCS) in a convenience sample of 83 women with Type 2 diabetes. Alpha coefficient for the 8-item scale was .85, and the average inter-item correlation coefficient was .42. Construct validity was supported by correlations in the expected directions between the DCS and measures of learned resourcefulness, depressive symptoms, and health practices. Factor analysis presented a single dimension of 8 items. These findings suggest that the DSC will be useful in identifying patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes who are at risk for the development of clinical depression.
- Go to article: The Children’s Cognitive Triad Inventory: Reliability, Validity, and Congruence With Beck’s Cognitive Triad Theory of Depression
The Children’s Cognitive Triad Inventory: Reliability, Validity, and Congruence With Beck’s Cognitive Triad Theory of Depression
Depression, once thought rare in children, is now more widely recognized and believed to arise from negative views of self, world, and future, according to Beck’s cognitive theory of depression. The Cognitive Triad Inventory for children measures the three negative views, and although reported as psychometrically adequate, this study extended previous analyses with confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 122 school-aged children. Internal consistency was .82 (total scale) but ranged from .54 to .76 for subscales reflecting the views of self, world, and future. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed factors reflecting three aspects of the self rather than the three negative views. The findings suggest that Beck’s theory about the negative cognitive triad may be less suitable for children than adults.
Resourcefulness is the ability to independently perform daily tasks (personal resourcefulness) and to seek help from others when unable to function independently (social resourcefulness). The 2 forms of resourcefulness are theoretically related, yet no current measure captures both simultaneously. This 2-phase study involved development and testing of a Resourcefulness Scale for elders from existing measures of personal and social resourcefulness. Data from 2 studies of 451 chronically ill elders were randomly split: the measure was developed in phase 1 and validated in phase 2. The new Resourcefulness Scale has acceptable internal consistency (α = .85). Two correlated subscales reflecting personal and social resourcefulness (r = .41) were confirmed. The Resourcefulness Scale has potential usefulness for older adults as well as younger and middle-aged adults.
- Go to article: Cross-Cultural Equivalence and Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Depressive Cognition Scale
Cross-Cultural Equivalence and Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Depressive Cognition Scale
There is a great need for researchers to have access to reliable and valid research instruments in their own language to measure a concept of interest or concern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine semantic equivalency and psychometric properties of the Depressive Cognition Scale (DCS) in a Brazilian sample of diabetics. Back-translation and field testing methodology was used to determine the DCS semantic equivalency and psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 40 bilingual Brazilian adults was used to conduct the field testing of the scale. The findings suggested that the translation of the DCS was adequate and initial estimates of internal consistency and construct validity were adequate for both the DCS and its Portuguese version. Psychometric testing of the Portuguese language version of the DCS in this small sample appears to have sufficient reliability and validity for use in examining depressive cognitions in Brazilian adults. Further psychometric testing of the Portuguese version of the DCS in a larger Portuguese-speaking sample with diabetes is recommended.
Information systems provide nurses with a variety of resources to facilitate their work. Nurses’ use of information systems changes the way they collect assessment data, and plan and implement patient care. However, a reliable and valid instrument for measuring nurse’s use of information systems does not currently exist. This study examined the development and psychometric testing of a measure of nurses’ information systems use, the Information Systems Use Instrument (ISUI). A random sample of 570 nurses working in hospitals, providing direct patient care and using at least one information system completed the study questionnaire. The internal consistency reliability was .82. Exploratory factor analysis, using principal components extraction and varimax rotation, revealed that all seven items loaded cleanly and strongly on a single factor. The ISUI showed sufficient evidence for its psychometric properties to encourage its use.
Depressive cognitions often precede the development of affective and behavioral symptoms of depression. Cognitive factors have been shown to influence the development of depression in older adults and thus identification of depressive cognitions is important for prevention of clinical depression and early intervention. The Depressive Cognition Scale (DCS) assesses cognitions that may precipitate clinical depression, and it has been found to be internally consistent and to demonstrate construct validity with measures of psychosocial development. This psychometric investigation was designed to further examine the construct validity of the DCS through comparison with measures of hypothetically related constructs. An alpha of .78 indicated acceptable internal consistency. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with measures of depression, resourcefulness, adaptive functioning, and life satisfaction. The study, conducted with 160 healthy elders, provides additional support for the reliability and validity of the DCS and yields promising evidence of its usefulness with elderly persons.
Assessment of cognitive processes that predispose or contribute to clinical depression in elders is important for planning interventions that facilitate positive cognitive appraisal and effective coping strategies. Instruments evaluating severity of depression exist; however, none measure specific depressive cognitions. This paper describes the development and pilot testing of the Depressive Cognitions Scale (DCS) for older adults. Derived from Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory, the 8 items comprising the scale were selected by clinical experts from a pool of 24 items. Each item reflects a depressive cognition that may arise from less than successful resolution of one of Erikson’s developmental phases. Psychometric testing of the DCS was conducted with 60 functionally independent, community dwelling older adults (age 65+). An alpha of .78 indicated acceptable internal consistency. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with measures of psychosocial development. Further psychometric study of the DCS is recommended.
Learned resourcefulness is important in promoting independence and healthy, productive lifestyles among older adults, and therefore it is essential to have a measure of learned resourcefulness that is reliable and valid for this population. However, for elders published psychometric tests of Roseblaum’s Self-Control Schedule (SCS), which is the measure of learned resourcefulness, are limited to internal consistency estimates. This study examined the ease of sdministration and psychometric properties of the SCS in three samples of healthy elders (age 65+). The findings yield promising evidence that the instrument is fairly easy for elders to understand when administered during face-to-face interviews. Evidence of reliability and validity is considerable, and the SCS shows acceptable internal consistency and contruct validity. These findings support the potential usefulness of the measure of learned resourcefulness for adults