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- Go to article: Community-Dwelling Elders’ Perceptions of LIFE Staff Caring: A Comparative Descriptive Study
The aim of this comparative descriptive design study was to explore older persons’ perceptions of the staff caring process and to describe whether differences exist among ethnic groups and by gender. Subjects were recruited from a diverse group of older persons who attended the Mercy Living Independently for Elders (LIFE) Program in Philadelphia. Total scores on the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) were compared by ethnic group; scores did not differ at a statistically significant level. When total CBI-E scores were compared by gender, no statistically significant difference was found. Additional testing of the CBI-E is called for to continue to establish its psychometric properties.
- Go to article: Creation of a Caring Protocol: Activities and Dissemination Strategies in Caring Research and Instruments
Creation of a Caring Protocol: Activities and Dissemination Strategies in Caring Research and Instruments
Few acute care healthcare agencies have tested the effect of a caring-focused program on the satisfaction of hospitalized, adult patients. Caring interventions need to be tested to document the effectiveness of nurse caring on a healthcare outcome, patient satisfaction. This study identified critical elements in interventional studies on nurse caring by determining patterns and caring activities in interventions (programs, protocols, or standards) to develop a caring protocol for a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCICCC). Research, other published articles on caring programs, and instruments were analyzed for patterns and elements indicative of caring behaviors or activities representing nurse caring that could contribute to a caring intervention. Intervention dissemination strategies were also analyzed for incorporation into the program’s implementation in a nursing department of the NCICCC. Content analysis techniques identified patterns and activities in caring interventions and intervention dissemination strategies. Comments and written suggestions on the draft caring protocol were solicited from agency stakeholders (N = 22), including administrators, key nursing staff, and members of the Patient Family Advisory Council. The caring protocol/standard of practice and dissemination strategies were identified.
The purpose of this study was to develop the caring behaviors inventory for elders (CBI-E), based on the caring behaviors inventory (CBI). Aconvenience sample (N = 36) of elders completed the instrument. Procedures to establish content validity, including item selection and revision, construct validity, reliability, and pilot testing were employed to establish the psychometric properties of the initial version of the 28-item CBI-E. Content validity of the expert type was established with six advanced practice nurses, expert in gerontological nursing. The investigators revised items following expert review; one item was eliminated. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .94 for the overall CBI-E. The response scale was modified and several items were revised.
- Go to article: The Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action: Foundational Elements and Applications
The Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action: Foundational Elements and Applications
This continuing education article analyzes Sumner’s theory, the moral construct of caring in nursing as communicative action. The dissemination of the theory includes the development of an instrument, its application to nursing administration, and its promise for use in patient care situations. It serves as a framework for nurses providing direct care to patients to reexamine the nurse–patient relationship.
This three-round Delphi study generated an international standard of care for caring for potential use by nurses and other health care providers in health care agencies and communities. The caring elements, based on related literature, were surveyed from members of the International Association for Human Caring (IAHC) and attendees of the IAHC meeting held in Boca Raton, Florida (USA), in 2000. The standard was constructed from questionnaire responses and provides a starting point for developing a practice model and subject matter for debate among clinicians, educators, and researchers from diverse cultures.and quantitative analysis indicated that student caring behavior significantly improved.
This continuing education article analyzes Paterson and Zderad’s humanistic nursing theory. It examines its origins by exploring early publications and investigates the theory’s major concepts. The article determines the influence of humanistic nursing theory on the development of caring theories and its application to research, nursing education, and patient care situations. Humanistic nursing theory has been applied to nursing research, education, and clinical practice. Its utility for understanding and analyzing relational encounters in healthcare settings continues and is significant.
Theories of caring in nursing, developed over decades, are rooted in the ethical principle of respect for human dignity and an expectation of nurse behavior that demonstrates caritas. This article describes the context and evolution of caring-theory development; presents an overview of caring theories, their components, and studies framed by a caring theory; and examines the current state of caring-theory development. The body of knowledge framed by caring theories, constructs, and models contributes to caring science. Caring science depends on how future research and scholarship are guided, translated, disseminated, and expanded to strengthen caring science and to direct nursing praxis.
- Go to article: Strategies to Implement the Standard of Care/Caring Protocol in an Acute Care Oncology Hospital Setting: A Focus Group Study
Strategies to Implement the Standard of Care/Caring Protocol in an Acute Care Oncology Hospital Setting: A Focus Group Study
The investigation examined intervention strategies used by registered nurse caring crusaders during implementation of a nursing department’s standard of care/caring protocol in a cancer hospital. The aim was to obtain increased understanding of how caring crusaders and investigators accomplished intervention fidelity during a program evaluation pilot study. An after program focus group design was implemented. Major themes consisted of context; accepting the idea of the protocol and resisting the education session in preparation for the caring protocol rollout; launching the caring protocol; getting on board with the protocol; maintaining the protocol throughout the timeline; persistence of caring crusaders; and competing standards. Additional major themes were: unanticipated project outcome; desiring recognition for performance; caring protocol: caring construct and caring activities as hidden nursing work; importance of nurse managers to the caring protocol; and reaching out to other employees about the caring protocol.
- Go to article: Systematic Review of Effect of a Caring Protocol Provided by Nursing Staff on Patient Satisfaction of Adult Hospitalized Patients
Systematic Review of Effect of a Caring Protocol Provided by Nursing Staff on Patient Satisfaction of Adult Hospitalized Patients
This review aimed to identify methodologically sound studies that evaluated the effect of nurse caring on the satisfaction of hospitalized, adult patients. Quantitative studies were located from electronic databases, with a search strategy that focused on titles, key words, index terms, abstracts, and full text published documents on nurse caring or nursing staff caring, patient satisfaction, and hospitalized adults. The initial search identified 2,709 references. Fifty-two full text citations remained for the next step of critical appraisal; 16 documents were included in the final review. Most of the citations were Level VI in a hierarchy of evidence with low quality. Nurse caring protocols need to be developed and linked causally to the outcome of patient satisfaction with hospitalization.
- Go to article: The Caring Behaviors Inventory For Elders: Development And Psychometric Characteristics
- Go to article: The Meaning of Nursing Practice in the Stories and Poems of Nurses Working in Hospitals: A Phenomenological Study
The Meaning of Nursing Practice in the Stories and Poems of Nurses Working in Hospitals: A Phenomenological Study
This study explored the experience of being a nurse working in a hospital. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach (M. van Manen, 1990), investigators employed text-based analysis to understand and elucidate the themes inherent in the experience. For 4 years, nurses working in 2 urban hospitals contributed stories and poems. These narratives bring to the fore the familiar but infrequently articulated caring work of hospital nurses.