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- Go to article: Community-Dwelling Elders’ Perceptions of LIFE Staff Caring: A Comparative Descriptive Study
The aim of this comparative descriptive design study was to explore older persons’ perceptions of the staff caring process and to describe whether differences exist among ethnic groups and by gender. Subjects were recruited from a diverse group of older persons who attended the Mercy Living Independently for Elders (LIFE) Program in Philadelphia. Total scores on the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) were compared by ethnic group; scores did not differ at a statistically significant level. When total CBI-E scores were compared by gender, no statistically significant difference was found. Additional testing of the CBI-E is called for to continue to establish its psychometric properties.
- Go to article: Creation of a Caring Protocol: Activities and Dissemination Strategies in Caring Research and Instruments
Creation of a Caring Protocol: Activities and Dissemination Strategies in Caring Research and Instruments
Few acute care healthcare agencies have tested the effect of a caring-focused program on the satisfaction of hospitalized, adult patients. Caring interventions need to be tested to document the effectiveness of nurse caring on a healthcare outcome, patient satisfaction. This study identified critical elements in interventional studies on nurse caring by determining patterns and caring activities in interventions (programs, protocols, or standards) to develop a caring protocol for a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCICCC). Research, other published articles on caring programs, and instruments were analyzed for patterns and elements indicative of caring behaviors or activities representing nurse caring that could contribute to a caring intervention. Intervention dissemination strategies were also analyzed for incorporation into the program’s implementation in a nursing department of the NCICCC. Content analysis techniques identified patterns and activities in caring interventions and intervention dissemination strategies. Comments and written suggestions on the draft caring protocol were solicited from agency stakeholders (N = 22), including administrators, key nursing staff, and members of the Patient Family Advisory Council. The caring protocol/standard of practice and dissemination strategies were identified.
The purpose of this study was to develop the caring behaviors inventory for elders (CBI-E), based on the caring behaviors inventory (CBI). Aconvenience sample (N = 36) of elders completed the instrument. Procedures to establish content validity, including item selection and revision, construct validity, reliability, and pilot testing were employed to establish the psychometric properties of the initial version of the 28-item CBI-E. Content validity of the expert type was established with six advanced practice nurses, expert in gerontological nursing. The investigators revised items following expert review; one item was eliminated. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .94 for the overall CBI-E. The response scale was modified and several items were revised.