Theories of caring in nursing, developed over decades, are rooted in the ethical principle of respect for human dignity and an expectation of nurse behavior that demonstrates caritas. This article describes the context and evolution of caring-theory development; presents an overview of caring theories, their components, and studies framed by a caring theory; and examines the current state of caring-theory development. The body of knowledge framed by caring theories, constructs, and models contributes to caring science. Caring science depends on how future research and scholarship are guided, translated, disseminated, and expanded to strengthen caring science and to direct nursing praxis.
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- Go to article: Community-Dwelling Elders’ Perceptions of LIFE Staff Caring: A Comparative Descriptive Study
The aim of this comparative descriptive design study was to explore older persons’ perceptions of the staff caring process and to describe whether differences exist among ethnic groups and by gender. Subjects were recruited from a diverse group of older persons who attended the Mercy Living Independently for Elders (LIFE) Program in Philadelphia. Total scores on the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) were compared by ethnic group; scores did not differ at a statistically significant level. When total CBI-E scores were compared by gender, no statistically significant difference was found. Additional testing of the CBI-E is called for to continue to establish its psychometric properties.
- Go to article: Creation of a Caring Protocol: Activities and Dissemination Strategies in Caring Research and Instruments
Creation of a Caring Protocol: Activities and Dissemination Strategies in Caring Research and Instruments
Few acute care healthcare agencies have tested the effect of a caring-focused program on the satisfaction of hospitalized, adult patients. Caring interventions need to be tested to document the effectiveness of nurse caring on a healthcare outcome, patient satisfaction. This study identified critical elements in interventional studies on nurse caring by determining patterns and caring activities in interventions (programs, protocols, or standards) to develop a caring protocol for a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCICCC). Research, other published articles on caring programs, and instruments were analyzed for patterns and elements indicative of caring behaviors or activities representing nurse caring that could contribute to a caring intervention. Intervention dissemination strategies were also analyzed for incorporation into the program’s implementation in a nursing department of the NCICCC. Content analysis techniques identified patterns and activities in caring interventions and intervention dissemination strategies. Comments and written suggestions on the draft caring protocol were solicited from agency stakeholders (N = 22), including administrators, key nursing staff, and members of the Patient Family Advisory Council. The caring protocol/standard of practice and dissemination strategies were identified.