When the perpetrator is the client’s own body, the Illness and Somatic Disorders Protocol can be used. It is important to note that this protocol addresses both psychological and physical factors related to somatic complaints. For many, addressing the psychological dimensions will cause partial or complete remission of the physical symptoms. When primarily organic processes are involved, the psychological issues may be exacerbating the physical conditions. While physical symptoms may not remit, the clinical emphasis is on improving the person’s quality of life. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) has also been used in the hospital to assist clients who are suffering from intractable pain to let go of the guilt they feel about wanting to die and be released from the pain. There are many ways to bolster the immune system in order to facilitate the healing process, however, death may be inevitable for some clients.
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Protocol for excessive grief is to be used when there is a high level of suffering, self-denigration, and lack of remediation over time concerning the loss of a loved one. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) does not eliminate healthy appropriate emotions, including grief. The protocol is similar to the Standard EMDR Protocol for trauma. The goal of this work is to have clinicians’ client accept the loss and think back on aspects of life with the loved one with a wide range of feelings, including an appreciation for the positive experiences they shared. Francine Shapiro often brings up the issue: How long does one have to grieve? She asks us to not place our limitations on our clients as this would be antithetical to the notion of the ecological validity of the client’s self-healing process.
This chapter serves as a one-stop resource where therapists can access a wide range of word-for-word scripted protocols for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) practice, including the past, present, and future templates. These scripts are conveniently outlined in an easy-to-use, manual style template for therapists, allowing them to have a reliable, consistent form and procedure when using EMDR with clients. The idea of the safe place has been a staple in practices of Clinical Hypnosis practitioners. The first known use of the Safe Place with EMDR was when Dr. Neal Daniels, an EMDR practitioner working at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Philadelphia, adopted this resource to assist the veterans with whom he worked to ground themselves and contain their affect before doing trauma work. Dr. Francine Shapiro saw the merit of this intervention and by 1995 included a formalized version into the first EMDR text.
This chapter presents a summary of the Single Traumatic Event Protocol. For single traumatic events, the Standard Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol should be applied to the certain targets, including the past, present, and future templates. The chapter serves as a one-stop resource where therapists can access a wide range of word-for-word scripted protocols for EMDR practice. These scripts are conveniently outlined in an easy-to-use, manual style template for therapists, allowing them to have a reliable, consistent form and procedure when using EMDR with clients. Encourage clients to imagine themselves coping effectively in the face of specific challenges, triggers, or snafus. Therapists can make some suggestions of things in order to help inoculate them with future problems. It is helpful to use imaginal rehearsing type of future template after clients have received needed education concerning social skills and customs, assertiveness, and any other newly learned skills.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Scripted Protocols: Basics and Special Situations
Scripting is a way to inform and remind the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) practitioner of the component parts, sequence, and language used to create an effective outcome. As EMDR is a fairly complicated process, this book provides step-by-step scripts that will enable beginning practitioners to enhance their expertise more quickly. The book is separated into nine parts. The Client History part represents the first of the eight phases of EMDR treatment. The ability to gather, formulate, and then use the material in the intake part of treatment is crucial to an optimal outcome in any therapist’s work. Part II includes an important element of the Preparation Phase that addresses ways to introduce and explain EMDR, trauma, and the adaptive information processing (AIP) model. The importance of teaching clients how to create personal resources is the topic of Part III. Here, an essential element of the Preparation/Second Phase of EMDR work is addressed to ensure clients’ abilities to contain their affect and remain stable as they move through the EMDR process. Part IV shows how to work with clients concerning the targeting of their presenting problems when the usual ways do not work such as usage of drawings to concretize clients’ conceptualization of their issues and usage of an alternative initial targeting method. Part V includes protocols that have been scripted based on the material that appears in Francine Shapiro’s EMDR textbook. Parts VI and VII address EMDR and early intervention procedures for man-made and natural catastrophes for individuals and groups. Performance enhancement and clinician’s self-care are dealt with in the final two parts of the book.
This chapter presents a summary of the Current Anxiety and Behavior Protocol. For current anxiety and behavior problems, the Standard Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol should be applied to the certain targets, including the past, present, and future templates. The chapter serves as a one-stop resource where therapists can access a wide range of word-for-word scripted protocols for EMDR practice. These scripts are outlined in an easy-to-use, manual style template for therapists, allowing them to have a reliable, consistent form and procedure when using EMDR with clients. After clients have processed their issue(s), they might want to work on positive templates for the future in other areas of their lives using the future templates. If new material comes ups during the Reevaluation Phase after the current anxiety and behavior were processed, target this material as soon as possible to make sure that the whole event have been reprocessed.
This chapter presents a summary of the Recent Traumatic Events Protocol. For single traumatic events, the Standard Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol should be applied to the certain targets, including the past, present, and future templates. The chapter serves as a one-stop resource where therapists can access a wide range of word-for-word scripted protocols for EMDR practice. These scripts are conveniently outlined in an easy-to-use, manual style template for therapists, allowing them to have a reliable, consistent form and procedure when using EMDR with clients. The client should have a full association with the material as it is being reprocessed. If there is disturbance, the client should stop and inform the clinician. Then, the EMDR Procedure including the negative cognition (NC) and positive cognition (PC) is implemented. Repeat until the entire event can be visualized from start to finish without emotional, cognitive, or somatic distress.
- Go to article: EMDR and Phantom Limb Pain: Theoretical Implications, Case Study, and Treatment Guidelines
This article reviews the literature on EMDR treatment of somatic complaints and describes the application of Shapiro’s Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model in the treatment of phantom limb pain. The case study explores the use of EMDR with a 38-year-old man experiencing severe phantom limb pain 3 years after the loss of his leg and part of his pelvis in an accident. Despite treatment at several rehabilitation and pain centers during the 3 years, and the use of opiate medication, he continued to experience persistent pain. After 9 EMDR treatment sessions, the patient’s phantom limb pain was completely ablated, and he was taken off medication. Effects were maintained at 18-month follow-up. The clinical implications of this application of EMDR are explored.
Therapists trained to provide eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy have a global responsibility. This article summarizes the multiple impacts of high stress events, and their long-term effects on individuals, families, communities, and nations. While it is well documented that EMDR treatment will remediate the individual symptoms of posttraumatic stress, research is still needed to determine how far-reaching such outcomes are. Future studies should determine whether treatment reverses the neurobiological changes, cognitive deficits, and affective dysregulation, which are associated with exposure to traumatic events. Research should also investigate whether successful treatment decreases high-risk and/or perpetrator behavior, and whether these effects are translated into behavioral and attitudinal changes sufficient to bring an end to intergenerational trauma and ethnopolitical conflicts. It seems self-evident that the ideal way to address pressing societal needs, on both local and global levels, is by the integration of science and practice. The article also discusses the development of nonprofit EMDR humanitarian assistance programs, and their essential work in the alleviation of suffering around the world. In addition to recommending the examination of EMDR's efficacy in treating traumatization from direct, natural, structural, and cultural causes, this article advocates that research resources be dedicated for testing interventions in the areas of the world with the greatest needs. The alleviation of suffering is the duty of our profession.
- Go to article: Interview With Francine Shapiro: Historical Overview, Present Issues, and Future Directions of EMDR
This interview with Dr. Francine Shapiro, originator and developer of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), provides an overview of the history and evolution of EMDR from its inception to current findings and utilization, as well as future directions in research and clinical development. Dr. Shapiro discusses the psychological traditions that informed the development of EMDR and the Adaptive Information model, as well as the implications for current treatment. The rationale for the application of EMDR to a wide range of disorders is discussed, as well as its integration with other therapeutic approaches. Topics include research on the role of eye movements, the use of EMDR with combat veterans, somatoform disorders, attachment issues, and the distinct features of EMDR that have allowed it to be used for crisis intervention worldwide.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic approach guided by the adaptive information processing (AIP) model. This article provides a brief overview of some of the major precepts of AIP. The basis of clinical pathology is hypothesized to be dysfunctionally stored memories, with therapeutic change resulting from the processing of these memories within larger adaptive networks. Unlike extinction-based exposure therapies, memories targeted in EMDR are posited to transmute during processing and are then again stored by a process of reconsolidation. Therefore, a comparison and contrast to extinction-based information processing models and treatment is provided, including implications for clinical practice. Throughout the article a variety of mechanisms of action are discussed, including those inferred by tenets of the AIP model, and the EMDR procedures themselves, including the bilateral stimulation. Research suggestions are offered in order to investigate various hypotheses.
EMDR is an integrative, client-centered psychotherapy approach that emphasizes the brain’s information processing system and memories of disturbing experiences as the bases of those pathologies not caused by organic deficit or insult. EMDR addresses the experiences that contribute to clinical conditions and those needed to bring the client to a robust state of psychological health. Overviews of the history, development, and research that have established EMDR as an empirically supported treatment are provided. Subsequent to an explanation of the adaptive information processing model, an extended case example is used to illustrate the recommended EMDR case conceptualization and eight phases of treatment. This approach is used to process the early memories that set the foundation for the pathology and the present situations that trigger the dysfunction, while providing templates for appropriate future action that incorporate the information and behaviors needed to overcome skill and/or developmental deficits. The benefits of integrating EMDR and family systems perspectives to provide the most comprehensive therapeutic effects are described.
- Go to article: EMDR y el Modelo del Procesamiento Adaptativo de la Información Mecanismos potenciales del cambio
La desensibilización y el reprocesamiento a través de movimientos oculares (EMDR) es un enfoque terapéutico guiado por el modelo del procesamiento adaptativo de la información (PAI). Este artículo ofrece una breve visión general de algunos de los principales preceptos del PAI. Se formula la hipótesis de que la base de la patología clínica son los recuerdos almacenados disfuncionalmente, produciéndose el cambio terapéutico a través del procesamiento de dichos recuerdos dentro de redes adaptativas más amplias. A diferencia de las terapias de exposición basadas en la extinción, se propone que los recuerdos sobre los que se incide en EMDR se transmutan durante el procesamiento, volviéndose a almacenar por medio de un proceso de re-consolidación. Por tanto, se ofrece comparación y contraste con los modelos de procesamiento de la información y tratamientos basados en la extinción, incluyendo las implicaciones para la práctica clínica. A lo largo del artículo, se habla de diversos mecanismos de acción, incluyendo aquellos derivados de los principios del modelo PAI, así como los propios procedimientos de EMDR, incluyendo la estimulación bilateral. Se ofrecen sugerencias de investigación, con el fin de investigar diversas hipótesis.
- Go to article: Programmes d'assistance humanitaire de la psychothérapie EMDR : traiter les effets psychologiques, physiques et sociétaux des expériences défavorables à travers le monde
Programmes d'assistance humanitaire de la psychothérapie EMDR : traiter les effets psychologiques, physiques et sociétaux des expériences défavorables à travers le monde
Il est prouvé que les effets négatifs du trauma et d'autres expériences de vie défavorables interfèrent avec le fonctionnement individuel, familial et sociétal. La psychothérapie EMDR (désensibilisation et retraitement par les mouvements oculaires) bénéficie d'un soutien empirique ; elle est recommandée en tant que traitement de première ligne pour le trauma psychologique dans de nombreuses directives de pratique. Elle apporte un traitement à la fois efficace et efficient sans nécessiter de description détaillée de l'événement perturbant ou de tâches à réaliser entre les séances. Ceci permet aux équipes sur le terrain d'offrir une psychothérapie culturellement adaptée lors de journées successives à des personnes dans des régions éloignées et en situation de crise. Des organisations d'aide humanitaire ont mené des projets sur le plan international afin de proposer une psychothérapie EMDR après des catastrophes d'origine naturelle ou humaine et ont contribué à développer des ressources durables en santé mentale à travers le monde. Cette brève introduction apporte une vue d'ensemble des programmes actuels, de la logique qui sous-tend le traitement, ainsi qu'un appel à la mobilisation future.
- Go to article: Entretien avec Francine Shapiro: aperçu historique, questions actuelles et directions futures de l’EMDR
Entretien avec Francine Shapiro: aperçu historique, questions actuelles et directions futures de l’EMDR
Cet entretien avec Dr Francine Shapiro, inventrice et conceptrice de la thérapie EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing : thérapie d’intégration neuro-émotionnelle par des stimulations bilatérales alternées) apporte un aperçu de l’histoire et de l’évolution de l’EMDR depuis ses origines jusqu’aux résultats actuels et à leur utilisation, ainsi que les directions futures pour la recherche et le développement de la clinique. Dr Shapiro examine les traditions psychologiques qui ont guidé le développement de l’EMDR et le modèle de l’information adaptative, ainsi que les implications pour les traitements actuels. La logique qui sous-tend l’application de l’EMDR à un large éventail de troubles est envisagée, tout comme son intégration avec d’autres approches thérapeutiques. Les sujets évoqués comprennent la recherche sur le rôle des mouvements oculaires, l’utilisation de l’EMDR avec les vétérans de guerre, les troubles somatoformes, les questions de l’attachement et les caractéristiques uniques de l’EMDR qui ont permis son utilisation lors d’interventions de crise à travers le monde.
This Point/Counterpoint concludes the interchange in Greenwald, R. and Shapiro, F. (2010) What is EMDR?: Commentary by Greenwald and Invited Response by Shapiro Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4, 170–179. Greenwald Rejoinder: In this rejoinder, I highlight areas of agreement between Shapiro and me that were obscured by Shapiro’s (2010) response to my (Greenwald, 2010) commentary. I also address some of the erroneous statements made by Shapiro (2010) in her arguments against my positions. Finally, I summarize our disagreements, and again assert that until we have an empirical basis for preferring a particular theoretical model of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), it is premature for professional organizations to endorse Shapiro’s model. Shapiro Response: In response to Greenwald, I again confine myself to addressing some of the errors and misconceptions in his arguments in relation to important aspects of EMDR therapy, theory, and research. Further, contrary to his assertion, there is already a sufficient empirical basis to support the preferential use of the adaptive information processing (AIP) model from which the EMDR procedures were formulated. His argument against this position is antithetical to the traditional process by which foundational models are challenged, refined, or replaced. Implications are salient to both training and practice.
- Go to article: EMDR Therapy Humanitarian Assistance Programs: Treating the Psychological, Physical, and Societal Effects of Adverse Experiences Worldwide
EMDR Therapy Humanitarian Assistance Programs: Treating the Psychological, Physical, and Societal Effects of Adverse Experiences Worldwide
The negative effects of trauma and other adverse life experiences have been shown to interfere with individual, family, and societal functioning. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is empirically supported and recommended as a frontline treatment for psychological trauma in numerous practice guidelines. It provides both effective and efficient treatment without the need for detailed descriptions of the disturbing event or homework. This allows field teams to provide culturally sensitive therapy on consecutive days for those in remote areas and in crisis situations. Humanitarian assistance organizations have conducted projects internationally to provide EMDR therapy after both natural and manmade disasters and have helped develop sustainable mental health resources worldwide. This brief introduction provides an overview of current programs, treatment rationale, and a call for future action.
Greenwald: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has already been defined by at least one EMDR-focused professional association as inextricably based on Shapiro’s (2001) eight-phase protocol and adaptive information processing (AIP) model. This commentary argues that given the lack of data supporting an exclusive preference for Shapiro’s constructs, EMDR’s definition should not preclude legitimate alternative conceptualizations. Since definitions may be used for many inclusive and exclusive purposes with impact on EMDR’s development, dissemination, practice, and reputation, EMDR’s definition should be reconsidered. Shapiro: Greenwald’s arguments and suggested redefinition are examined in relation to EMDR research, theory and practice. As evaluated in numerous studies, EMDR is a distinct, eight-phase integrative psychotherapy approach that consists of numerous procedures and protocols, which were formulated and are conducted in accordance with the principles of the AIP model. Research and published clinical case reports have validated both its utility and predictions of positive treatment outcomes with a variety of populations. Professional implications are explored.
- Go to article: EMDR Made Simple: 4 Approaches to Using EMDR With Every ClientPeace in the Heart and the Home: A Down-to-Earth Guide to Creating a Better Life for You and Your Loved OnesGetting Past Your Past: Take Control of Your Life With Self-Help Techniques From EMDR Therapy
EMDR Made Simple: 4 Approaches to Using EMDR With Every ClientPeace in the Heart and the Home: A Down-to-Earth Guide to Creating a Better Life for You and Your Loved OnesGetting Past Your Past: Take Control of Your Life With Self-Help Techniques From EMDR Therapy