This book, as well as its previous editions, presents the fundamental principles for effectively securing funds for health and human service projects and research. It describes an approach with which to think about and engage in grant writing and takes the reader step-by-step through the process of grantsmanship, from its basic components to an understanding of what is required to implement a successful grant project. It is organized into seven parts, moving the reader from identifying a competitive idea (Part I, Getting Started) to writing the narrative (Part II, Writing a Competitive Grant Application), developing an appropriate budget (Part III, Preparing a Budget), identifying an effective project structure (Part IV, Models for Proposal Development), submitting the proposal (Part V, Submitting the Proposal), understanding the review process and grant critiques (Part VI, Life After a Grant Submission), and finally managing the associated grant activity and building from one grant to the next (Part VII, Strategies for Managing a Grant Award). The book emphasizes principles and approaches versus procedural details associated with any single grant submission. This edition includes expanded coverage of key areas such as how to write an effective aims page, considerations for specific types of study designs, and how to write a compelling literature review. It also includes details on mentorship within the grantwriting process and the implementation of a funded project. This book also helps readers gain an appreciation of how grant writing fits into a career path and how to develop ideas in a systematic way so that one funded project builds logically onto the next.
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- Go to article: The Self-Efficacy for Functional Abilities Scale for Older Adults in Long-Term Care: Two-Level Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis
The Self-Efficacy for Functional Abilities Scale for Older Adults in Long-Term Care: Two-Level Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Background and Purpose: This study examines the underlying factor structure of the Self-Efficacy for Functional Abilities (SEFA) scale among older adults in long-term care settings. Methods: A secondary analysis of SEFA data for 568 residents in 16 long-term care facilities was applied. The sample was randomly split into 2 subsamples. A 2-level exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis adjusting for clustering effect of facilities was used to identify and determine the factor structures respectively. Results: There were 1- and 2-factor models that were identified. Both models demonstrated acceptably mixed model fit. The 2-factor model had poor discriminant validity with high correlation between factors (r = .92, p < .001). The single-factor model was considered valid with moderate correlation with function (r = .301, p < .001). Conclusions: The SEFA scale demonstrated a unidimensional construct among older adults in long-term care settings. Future testing is needed among other older adult populations.
- Go to article: Measuring Fatigue in Older Adults With Joint Pain: Reliability and Validity Testing of the PROMIS Fatigue Short Forms
Measuring Fatigue in Older Adults With Joint Pain: Reliability and Validity Testing of the PROMIS Fatigue Short Forms
Background and Purpose
Limited literature exists regarding the psychometric properties of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Fatigue Short Form 8a. This study compared the psychometric properties of the 8a to the established PROMIS Fatigue Short Form 7a.
This was a cross-sectional study of 31 older adults with joint pain. Equivalent forms reliability and a Rasch analysis explored reliability (equivalent forms, internal consistency), validity (unidimensionality, item INFIT/OUTFIT), and additional psychometrics (item mapping).
The measures were equivalent in measuring fatigue (r = 0.75, p < .001) with good internal consistency (α = .87−.92). Both were unidimensional. Even though the 8a had better fitting items, neither measure could differentiate low levels of fatigue.
The 8a has comparable psychometric properties to the 7a in this population. Future work is needed in larger, more diverse samples.
Background and Purpose
The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Quality of Interactions Schedule (QuIS) using a quantification scoring approach.
Baseline data from the Evidence Integration Triangle for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (EIT-4-BPSD) study was used.
A total of 553 residents participated. There was evidence of inter-rater reliability with Kappa scores of .86 to 1.00 and internal consistency based on the Rasch analysis (item reliability of .98). There was some support for validity based on item fit and hypothesis testing as resistiveness to care was significantly associated with total QuIS scores.
This study supports the use of the quantified QuIS to evaluate the quality of interactions over time and to test interventions to improve interactions.
- Go to article: Self-Esteem Among Nursing Assistants: Reliability and Validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
Purpose: To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Method: Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Results: Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Conclusion: Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) revised to incorporate recent evidence-based recommendations for bone health. Methods: The revised OKT was tested with 866 participants (mean age = 62.8 years ± 8.5 years) in an online bone health study. Results: Based on Rasch analysis, there was evidence of internal consistency with an item separation index of 12.68 and a reliability score of .98. The person separation index was 2.06 with a reliability score of .81. The INFIT and OUTFIT mean-square statistics for items on both subscales all demonstrated good fit ranging from 0.71 to 1.40, except for 2 items that had low OUTFIT statistics. Conclusions: The revised OKT provides sufficient reliability and construct validity.
- Go to article: Reliability and Validity of the Knowledge of Person-Centered Behavioral Approaches for BPSD Test
Background and Purpose
The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Knowledge of Person-Centered Behavioral Approaches for BPSD based on a Rasch analysis.
This study used baseline data from the Implementation of the Evidence Integration Triangle for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (EIT-4-BPSD) clinical trial.
A total 1,071 nurses completed the test. There was evidence of reliability (alpha coefficient of .99), construct validity with INFIT and OUTFIT statistics in the .6 to 1.4 range, and hypothesis testing with a significant correlation between the Knowledge of Person-Centered Behavioral Approaches for BPSD and positive care interactions.
Future use of the measure should include more challenging items to differentiate those very high in knowledge of person-centered behavioral approaches for BPSD.
- Go to article: Evaluation of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale in African American and White Caregivers of Persons With Dementia During Post-Hospitalization Transition
Evaluation of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale in African American and White Caregivers of Persons With Dementia During Post-Hospitalization Transition
Background and Purpose
The Preparedness for Caregiving Scale (PCS) is a widely used instrument to measure caregiver preparedness. The purpose was to evaluate the PCS in African American and White caregivers of patients with dementia upon discharge from the hospital.
Factor structure, measurement invariance, and predictive validity of the PCS were assessed in a sample of 292 family caregivers/patient dyads.
One-factor structure of the PCS and measurement invariance by race was fully supported. Predicative validity revealed significant association between the PCS and anxiety (β = −.41, t = −7.61(287), p < .001), depression (β = −.44, t = −8.39(287), p < .001), and strain (β = −.48, t = −9.29(287), p < .001).
The PCS is a valid and meaningful tool to measure preparedness in African American and White family caregivers of persons with dementia during post-hospitalization transition.
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the MotionWatch 8 with older adults. Methods: Participants wore the MotionWatch 8 for 3 days, completed a diary of activities and the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. Results: Evidence of reliability and validity was supported because there was no difference in daily level of activity and that recorded physical activity matched the activity counts. There was a significant difference in Borg RPE scale scores between the sedentary group (Borg RPE scale = 8.6, SD = 3.0) and those with some level of activity (Borg RPE scale = 9.9, SD = 2.3; F = 5.72, p = .02). Conclusion: The findings provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the MotionWatch 8 when used with older adults.
- Go to article: Reliability and Validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales with Minority Older Adults
Reliability and Validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales with Minority Older Adults
Older African Americans and Latinos tend to exercise less than older Whites and are more likely to have chronic diseases that could benefit from exercise. Measurement of self-efficacy of exercise and exercise outcome expectations in this older population is required if exercise is to be monitored carefully and enhanced in this population. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (OEE) in a sample of African American and Latino older adults. A total of 166 individuals, 32 males (19%) and 134 females (81%) with an average age of 72.8 ± 8.4 years participated in the study. The SEE and OEE scales were completed using face-to-face interviews. There was evidence of internal consistency for both scales with alphas of .89 and .90 for the SEE scale and .72 and .88 for the OEE scale. There was some evidence of validity for both scales based on confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis testing, because factor loadings were greater than .50 in all but two items in the OEE, and there were significant relationships between self-efficacy and outcome expectations and exercise behavior at all testing time-points. The measurement models showed a fair fit of the data to the models. The study provided some evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE when used with minority older adults, and it provides some guidelines for future scale revisions and use.