This chapter discusses the nature and significance of person-centric assessments to rehabilitation support interventions for people with disabilities. It defines person-centric assessments and positions them within the framework of the WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF provides a universally accepted biosocial conceptual framework for understanding health and disability. The chapter discusses the ways in which the ICF can be used in conjunction with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and other WHO classifications systems to provide person-centric data for rehabilitation support interventions with people with disabilities. Finally, the chapter proposes a conceptual model for applying ICF framework concepts to the design, selection, and use of person- centric rehabilitation assessments for life design with disability. Person-centric assessments for rehabilitation supports provide data on the appropriateness, intensity demands, and opportunity affordances for a satisfying life with disability.
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The rehabilitation field is dedicated to optimizing functionality and health for persons with disabilities and their families. Family assessments are typically guided by a systems orientation and driven by person-/family-centered and culturally competent practices. This chapter addresses the types of family assessments that are needed to determine quality rehabilitation services for the family member with disability, including social support, information, and advocacy. It explicates the various domains of family assessment and how these are likely to lead to successful rehabilitation outcomes. The chapter explores the various domains of family assessment most likely to lead to successful rehabilitation outcomes, family career health and well-being, information support assessments, advocacy support assessments, and assessment of family resilience. A holistic approach to family function, based on individual and collective roles and participation of the family members in healthy family functioning, is the ideal.
Addressing diversity issues in rehabilitation service provision is an ethical imperative. What needs to be considered are the ways in which diversity can be achieved without stigmatizing the same clients who are supposed to benefit from services. This chapter enhances conceptual clarity in the use of terms descriptive of minority status in clients seeking rehabilitation services. It characterizes multicultural counseling as an essential approach to address diversity issues that impact the quality of rehabilitation services. The chapter then proposes the ways in which rehabilitation professionals may enhance cultural sensitivity in their education and practice, and addresses ethical issues in rehabilitation counseling practice for which the use of multicultural counseling approaches would be a solution. Client outcomes in rehabilitation are a product of an interaction between rehabilitation service capacity and client participation, and counseling outcomes improve as client participation increases.
Person-oriented healthcare services, their design, and the instruments for them are aspirational to health systems across the globe. This chapter discusses approaches to the development and use of scores from tests for healthcare quality improvement that also would be useful for measuring population health disparities. In seeking to achieve this goal, the chapter provides a brief overview of the concepts of test score bias and validity from the extant literature. It considers test score reliability and validity issues, understanding that a health behavior is often part of a syndrome with other related behaviors that define it. Then, it considers test score measurement approaches to minimize test score bias and interpretation invalidity and discusses influences of demand characteristics of tests that would influence the reliability and validity of scores for intended purposes. Finally, the chapter discusses issues for research in the development of unbiased measures in the context of person-oriented care.
This chapter focuses on the central role of disability in how people experience, deal with, and overcome traumatic experiences. Stress can emerge from a variety of health conditions (e.g., congenital disability, adventitious disability, chronic illness) and can be exacerbated significantly when one experiences trauma. Disability and trauma are not mutually exclusive experiences; in fact, they are not infrequently seen in tandem. Although trauma is frequently associated with large-scale natural events (e.g., hurricane, tornado, war), people with disabilities (
PWD) experience various degrees of trauma due to pervasive societal discrimination, which can result in a number of psychopathologies necessitating affective type treatments. Despite trauma survivorship being common in nearly all societies around the globe, the evidence base has been thin, but the number of available interventions with promising options has been evolving quickly. The recovery from the effects of both disability and trauma is a process that requires an understanding of the diversity of factors that contribute to the trauma as well as the customization of treatments to individuals’ life situations.
This chapter focuses on aging as a natural process that affects every one of us. It provides an interdisciplinary overview on how older adults’ health needs and the relationships for them change with the aging process, conspiring their biopsychosocial vulnerabilities and assets during the later life years. Most importantly, it discusses the developmental aspects of aging, the meaning of age, issues affecting older adult people, and the significance of relationship support to successful aging. In doing so, the chapter surveys the demographics of aging and the evidence from aging-related research important to the health resourcing of older adults. Finally, the chapter considers a case illustration on the implications of aging to healthcare resourcing from family, cultural, and social policy perspectives.