This book provides a unique resource guide with practical application for graduate students, counselor educators and supervisors, and mental health practitioners to prepare to meet the intense challenges of disaster response in the 21st century. Each section of the book defines, describes, and applies the knowledge, awareness, and skills to work in a variety of disaster mental health counseling scenarios. Considerations are given to working with a variety of different cultures and special populations. Chapters cover the medical aspects such as blast wounds, psychosocial adjustment issues such as chronic illnesses and disabilities (CIDs), career transitions and clinical interventions in disaster mental health counseling. Survivors of mass violence are at high risk for a wide range of psychiatric, neurobehavioral, and neurocognitive disorders as a result of experiencing extraordinary stressful and traumatic events. One of the chapters offers a description of the empathy fatigue construct as it relates to other professional fatigue syndromes, a recently developed tool, Global Assessment of Empathy Fatigue (GAEF). The book goes beyond the traditional counseling theories and interventions text in that it offers real-world functional assessments, explains culturally relevant interventions, and provides readers with a structured approach for healing trauma; the Personal Growth Program to Heal Trauma (PGP-HT).
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This chapter discusses the psychosocial influences of environmental and natural disasters on individuals and communities. Environmental and natural disasters are envirobiopsychosocial by nature. Many times there are contributing factors involving substantial interaction effects between the person and the environment with which he or she lives. Thus, it is of paramount importance for mental health professionals to recognize that disaster survivors do in fact have some degree of control and responsibility over their internal and external environment for healing traumatic experiences. The chapter addresses commonly occurring environmental and natural disasters and offers disaster mental health counselor’s important issues for consideration based on the typology of each disaster. Four major events are discussed: earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes. Mental health counselors may best serve clients involved in environmental and natural disasters by being culturally attuned.
There are significant mental health challenges for individuals who have acquired a medical–physical disability during a disaster or trauma experience. This chapter discusses some of the more major prevalent medical conditions that are acquired from exposure to person-made and natural disasters. These conditions include traumatic brain injury (TBI), blast wounds, amputation, spinal cord injury (SCI), and musculoskeletal and chronic pain conditions. The chapter describes and discusses the major health conditions that are most prevalent and have the greatest challenges for individuals who have acquired an acute medical–physical injury during extraordinary stressful and traumatic events. It highlights the fact that acquired medical-physical disability, as a direct result of trauma and disaster, has a pervasive effect on the individual, which imposes chronic and persistent mental health conditions. The medical aspects of chronic illness and disability are critical to address clinically during a disaster mental health response.
This chapter explores a range of topics related to obesity, including its prevalence, medical aspects, and associated complications. Other relevant areas include the psychosocial factors pertaining to societal attitudes and individual mental health issues, vocational implications concerning work/wage discrimination, Social Security regulations, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protections. The chapter also discusses the implications for rehabilitation counselors regarding vocational and mental health counseling. The implications of working with persons who are obese or overweight may be broken down into mental health counseling and/or vocational counseling. Obesity and related medical complications have soared to the forefront of medical conditions that lead to premature death, discrimination in employment, compromised quality of life, and negative psychosocial implications. Counselors who are aware of the medical, psychosocial, and vocational implications of obesity can assist clients in a variety of ways, keeping Olkin’s (1999) recommendations in mind regarding disability-affirmative therapy.
This chapter reviews the history of treatment toward people with disabilities (PWDs) in the United States. Early immigration literature and the apparent attitudes and treatment toward PWDs, as well as certain other immigrant populations, were blatantly prejudiced and discriminatory. Antidisability sentiment became more evident with immigration restriction, which began as early as the development of the first North American settlements. The eugenics movement essentially died down after World War II, primarily because of Social Darwinism and the Nazi extermination of an estimated 250,000 German citizens and war veterans with disabilities. The survival-of-the-fittest concept and natural selection in the 21st century appear to have morphed into a survival of the financially fittest ideology. With the aging of America and millions of baby boomers moving into their golden years, the financial portfolios of these individuals dictate what the quality of their lives will be, like at no time before in American history.
One of the historical pillars of rehabilitation counseling has been the use of assessment throughout the rehabilitation process. With this historical emphasis, it is not surprising that the focus on assessment and the methods and techniques used have changed and evolved. As a result, students, practitioners, and researchers are on a constant quest for updated and current information to guide and inform practice, policy, and research. This constant quest for updated and comprehensive information is directly relevant to the assessment of individuals typically served by rehabilitation and mental health practitioners and is the focus of this book. To date, there has not been a book that has been able to provide a comprehensive discussion of topics applicable to service delivery across both setting. This book attempts to fill this gap. One factor that guided the development of this book was the authors’ goal to provide both the foundational information necessary to understand and plan the assessment process and combine this material with information that is applicable to specific population and service delivery settings. To achieve this goal, each of the chapters is written by leaders in the field who have specialized knowledge regarding the chapter content. The chapters provide practical hands on information that allows for easy incorporation of the material to rehabilitation and mental health practice. To further strengthen practical application, case studies and templates have been incorporated where applicable to highlight specific key aspects to promote application to service delivery. Second, this is the first assessment book to be developed after the Council on Rehabilitation Counselor Education and Council on the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Programs merger. Finally, the authors hope that the readers of this book can apply this information to enhance the overall quality of life of the individuals they work with, especially individuals with disabilities.
In this chapter, the book’s editors, Marini and Stebnicki presents a compelling and provocative reflection on the counseling profession. They summarize salient aspects of dealing with culture and disability that reflect how services are provided in an evidence-based practice environment. Each editor offers opinions and considerations for counseling professionals in the 21st century. Together, they hypothesize an inconvenient and potentially frightening future for Americans, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status, many of whom are minorities with disabilities. The chapter explores the ramifications of social class and classism, whereby social injustice perpetuates and exacerbates classism. In particular, Marini and Stebnicki call on counselors and related helping professionals to take a more active role in advocating beyond their traditional narrowly focused job duties of working almost exclusively with the client to adapt and survive in an able-bodied world.
This chapter explores one of the most profound and important empirical questions that researchers have regarding the psychological and sociological impact of disability: How do persons with disabilities react to their situation, and why do some actually excel, whereas others become indefinitely incapacitated both mentally and physically? The chapter explores seven common theories of adaptation to a traumatic physical disability. Some proposed theories have stronger evidence-based empirical support, whereas others rely on more qualitative and case study accounts, as well as clinical observation. The chapter first explores persons born with a congenital disability, and questions whether such individuals actually experience any type of adjustment process since they have no preinjury, nondisabled experience with which to compare their situation. It then explores the seven theories of adjustment: stage models, somatopsychology, the disability centrality model, ecological models, recurrent or integrated model, transactional model of coping, and chaos theory.
There are essentially three sectors of private rehabilitation counseling: the public sector, the private nonprofit sector, and the private-for-profit sector. This chapter helps the reader to learn the differences between nonforensic versus forensic private-sector vocational assessment and to learn about forensic life care planning and types of assessment used in the development of such reports. It differentiates the nuances of private vocational rehabilitation, forensic vocational consulting, and forensic life care planning are differentiated. The chapter also describes about the types of vocational assessment measures in non—private-sector versus private-sector vocational rehabilitation. It then discusses the various assessment measures and resources used in private-sector rehabilitation, including transferable skills analysis, labor market analysis, and functional capacity evaluations. The chapter finally describes the various life care planning assessments, including activities of daily living, day-in-the-life videos, comprehensive intake interviews, and multidisciplinary expert consultant assessment.
Family caregiving and support are perhaps the most essential elements in their disabled loved ones’ adjustment for response to disability. This chapter first explores the prevalence of caregiving in America, including demographic information about who the typical caregiver is and what the situational circumstances are for these individuals. It is followed by providing a definition of the types of caregiving support generally provided by loved ones, as well as the nuanced differences between unpaid family care versus paid formal care. This segues into a brief exploration into the significant family role caregiving entails and its impact on each member. The chapter then discusses caregiver abuse as well as the often painful decision to place a loved one in a long-term care facility. Finally, it explores strategies for counselors to be able to support family caregivers in caring for their loved one while maintaining their own mental and physical health needs.
- Go to chapter: Enhancing Client Return After the First Session, and Alternatively Dealing With Early Termination
This chapter explores two separate occurrences in the counseling process: clients who do not return after the first session, and effectively dealing with early termination of counseling. Most practitioners are all too familiar with one or both of these phenomena in counseling and are often left wondering what happened during the process for it to end prematurely or to never begin. The chapter addresses probable reasons why clients do not return following the first session and offers practical strategies regarding how to minimize this occurrence. Professional disclosure provides clients with answers to many questions they might otherwise have about the process, policies, and procedures. Treatment goals and length of treatment will vary depending on counselor theoretical orientation. Cognitive behavior therapy, is usually short term, focusing primarily on symptom reduction through the development of client coping skills and self-efficacy, and less emphasis on the client-counselor relationship.
The root causes of social injustice are in part centralized around wealth inequities, politicians, and legislation favoring the wealthy, discrimination, and a Darwinian mentality. This chapter explores the ramifications of social injustice in America focusing on those with disabilities. It discusses the ripple effect of poverty, oppression, and disability, and its subsequent deleterious impact for equitable treatment and opportunity. Beginning with prevalence statistics regarding poverty in general and disability specifically, the chapter segues into an exploration of the domino and vicious cycle effect of inequitable education, employment, health care, and health. The resulting psychosocial impact on minorities and those with disabilities is a reciprocal occurrence between these populations interfacing with an arguably apathetic societal and political populace. Finally, the chapter discusses a dialogue regarding the social justice counselor and strategies for counseling and advocating for this most ignored and disenfranchised population in America.
Perhaps one of the most interesting skills one can learn in working with persons with disabilities is to assess what their mental and physical residual capabilities are in order to transfer these abilities into work skills. This chapter explores and discusses samples of a mental functional capacity evaluation (MFCE) and physical functional capacity evaluation (PFCE), then illustrates how each of these types of assessments may be used in establishing an appropriate work setting for clients with disabilities. MFCE and PFCE tend to be most often used in Social Security court hearings in an effort to determine whether an individual is capable of working at any job commensurate with his or her skills and abilities. The primary difference between both types of evaluations is that MFCEs assess an individual’s cognitive and emotional capacity, whereas a PFCE focuses exclusively on an individual’s physical capabilities.
The specialization of forensic expert testimony in mental health has traditionally been precluded for counselors and dominated primarily by psychologists and psychiatrists. This chapter focuses on the applicable laws related to providing expert testimony and their impact on how counselors must prepare and present their findings in court. It outlines legal definitions and differences in deposing or discovery testimony versus trial testimony. Knowing the order and relevant issues involved at each procedural step becomes important regarding testimony preparation. A practical look at the specific skills counselors should have in order to effectively work in the forensic field is discussed next as well as specific strategies in preparing for and testifying in a courtroom. The growing need for forensic mental health evaluators plays a significant role in scientifically and methodologically providing the court with valuable knowledge in helping to render more informed decisions.
This chapter explores some of the possible underpinnings behind Sue and Sue’s citation that in counseling situations with minorities, more than 50% of clients do not return for a second visit with a counselor. This potential elephant in the room may lie deep within the past history of cultural distrust that many persons have toward the White race in America through stories that are passed down by their parents and grandparents. The chapter discusses a brief history behind some of the transgressions by White Americans toward racial and ethnic minorities to provide counselors with some perspective on the possible reasoning behind each minority group’s lack of trust. It explores those characteristics of culture that transcend time, acts of legislation, and cursory attempts at equality. Ethnic and racial minorities in the United States are still connected to yet vivid histories of segregation, oppression, marginalization, and discrimination.
The field of counseling is an exciting and challenging career choice. It is a profession that has a prolific history of enabling person-centered counseling approaches for individuals, couples, partners, and families, and facilitates therapeutic services for children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. This book offers an excellent resource for graduate-level coursework that relates to an orientation to the counseling profession, professional issues, and special topic seminars, as well as other counseling-related coursework. It provides both contemporary insight and practical strategies for working with the complexity of real-life issues related to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of diverse clients and their families. The book provides professionals with chapters organized into the 10 CACREP and CORE content areas that address the awareness, knowledge, and skills required to work with children, adolescents, individuals, groups, couples, families, and persons from diverse cultural backgrounds. The content areas are: professional counseling identity, ethical and practice management issues, case management and consultation issues, multicultural counseling awareness, counseling theories and techniques, career counseling and human growth, assessment and diagnosis, counseling couples, families, and groups, counseling specific populations, and contemporary issues in counseling.
The social justice counselor (SJC) is essentially a new breed of contemporary counselor who no longer works with blinders on regarding a narrowed vision of counseling that focuses on treating a client’s symptoms while ignoring any external contributing factors of client distress. This chapter describes social justice counseling, its emphasis, why it is needed, and why all counseling disciplines should stay abreast of the topic, its counseling strategies, and the premise as to why social justice needs to be considered in counseling. Social psychologists and sociologists have long studied the psychological ramifications of inequality regarding the reciprocal effect of individuals’ interactions with their environment. The chapter explores the economic, health, and psychosocial ramifications of inequality and oppression to provide counselors with insights regarding the worldview and daily lives of the poor and oppressed in American society.
The root causes of social injustice are in part centralized around wealth inequities, politicians and legislation favoring the wealthy, discrimination, and a Darwinian mentality (Greenwald, 2011; Marini, 2012b; Warren, 2014). This chapter explores the ramifications of social injustice in America focusing on those with disabilities. It discusses the ripple effect of poverty, oppression, and disability, and its subsequent deleterious impact for equitable treatment and opportunity. Beginning with prevalence statistics regarding poverty in general and disability specifically, the chapter segues into an exploration of the domino and vicious cycle effect of inequitable education, employment, health care, and health. The resulting psychosocial impact on minorities and those with disabilities is a reciprocal occurrence among these populations interfacing with an arguably apathetic societal and political populace. Finally, the chapter discusses a dialogue regarding the social justice counselor and strategies for counseling and advocating for this most ignored and disenfranchised population in America.
Caregiving in America is perhaps one of the most misperceived, underappreciated, sometimes stressful, and otherwise rewarding acts of unconditional love. Yet, depending on which study or author you are reading, caregiving is often described at one of the two contradictory ends of the spectrum; "a curse or opportunity". This chapter delves into caregiving for loved ones with a specific type of disability, including Alzheimer’s disease, neuromuscular disorders, traumatic brain injury, psychiatric disabilities, spinal cord injury, and congenital disabilities, such as muscular dystrophy (MD) and cerebral palsy (CP). Ellenbogen, Meade, Jackson, and Barrett (2006) indicate there are significant group differences in caregiving responsibilities and demands between disability types. The chapter explores the dynamics of caregiver abuse and the often painful decision to place a loved one in a long-term care facility and also explores the significance of having social support in caring for a loved one with a disability at home.
This chapter explores the impact that societal attitudes can have on persons with disabilities, both psychologically and socially. Affect, perceived self- esteem, and self- concept are largely influenced not only internally by our own thoughts and actions but also by input from our environment regarding how we perceive what others think of us and how we are treated by others. It focuses generally on empirical and conceptual studies pertaining to the views or perspectives of specific occupational and special interest groups. Stubbins (1991) advised the importance for rehabilitation psychologists and other counseling professionals to gain an understanding of or insight into the motivations, perspectives, or paradigms with which other groups view, treat, and interact with persons with disabilities. These insights provide rehabilitation professionals with relevant others’ perspectives as to how to better understand and work with these groups to facilitate better care for clients with disabilities.
- Go to chapter: Thriving Versus Succumbing to Disability: Psychosocial Factors and Positive Psychology
Perhaps the most crucial and significant question rehabilitation researchers have sought to answer over the past several decades is: How is it that some persons with disabilities appear to excel and succeed in life beyond all expectations, whereas others seemingly succumb or yield to the limits imposed by their disabilities and society? This chapter explores the multiple factors that contribute to this dichotomy. It focuses on disability from a salutogenic orientation (focusing on the traits of healthy and successful persons) as opposed to the traditional pathological approach (focusing on the reasons and treatment of those beleaguered with ongoing mental and physical health problems) (Antonovsky, 1987). The chapter briefly explores several of the more common disabling conditions in the United States, specifically substance use disorder (SUD), depression, anxiety, and suicide. It also explores the literature behind positive psychology and also the environmental and social barriers that obstruct wellness.
This book deals with a number of issues and strategies for counseling people with disabilities. It allows counselors and other related health professionals to learn from the writings of 16 people with disabilities across North America. The book provides information on how other professional disciplines perceive and are trained to view disability. It discusses the medical and psychosocial aspects of caregiving in the country and highlights some of the most difficult decisions individuals and families may have to make in this process. The book is organized into four parts containing sixteen chapters. Part I explores disability from a sociological perspective. The topics covered are: the history of how people with disabilities have been viewed and treated in society; attitude formation, societal attitudes, and myths about disabilities; culturally different issues and attitudes toward disability; and attitudes toward disability by specific special interest and occupational groups. Part II focuses on the psychology of disability surrounding the individual and his or her family. The topics address: theories of adjustment to disability by the individual; family adaptation across cultures toward a loved one who is disabled; sexuality and disability; and the psychosocial world of the injured worker. Part III addresses pertinent topics concerning psychosocial issues of disability. The topics include: disability and quality of life over the life span; implications of social support and caregiving of loved ones with a disability; and thriving versus succumbing to disability: psychosocial factors and positive psychology. Part IV addresses counseling strategies and insights for working with persons with disabilities. The topics discuss: which counseling theories and techniques work best with different disability populations and why; social justice, oppression, and disability; counseling families in the community; ethical responsibilities in working with persons with disabilities and our duty to educate; and basic dos and don’ts in counseling persons with disabilities.
This chapter explores perhaps the most profound and important empirical question researchers have regarding the psychological and sociological impact of the disability. The terms adjustment, adaptation, reaction, and response are used interchangeably despite the fact they may be different concepts but have overlapping definitions. The chapter first explores people born with a congenital disability, and questions whether such individuals experience any adjustment process as they have no preinjury, nondisabled experience with which to compare their situations. The remainder of the chapter explores the following seven theories of adjustment: stage models (Livneh, 1991), somatopsychology (Lewin, 1935; Trieschmann, 1988; Wright, 1983), the disability centrality model (Bishop, 2005), ecological models (Livneh & Antonak, 1997; Trieschmann, 1988; Vash & Crewe, 2004), recurrent or integrated model (Kendall & Buys, 1998), transactional model of coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984b), and chaos theory (Parker, Schaller, & Hansmann, 2003).
The history of treatment and attitude toward people with disabilities has often been marked by societal fears, intolerance, ambivalence, prejudice, and ignorance regarding disability. The independent living movement essentially evolved as people with disabilities learned from the social activist movements concerning minority civil rights, consumerism, and women’s rights. Ironically, because of medical advances, the life expectancy and quality of life for people living with disabilities in industrialized nations continue to improve from a medical perspective for those who can afford health care. To this end, the United States continues to arguably have a "survival of the economically fittest" mentality if universal health care is not soon realized. For the estimated 76 million baby boomers presently transitioning to retirement, the golden years may not be something to look forward to given the increasing health care costs.
The book stands as a primary text in disability studies on the family and a supporting text in applications with rehabilitation counseling. The emphasis on community opens its value to practitioners, managers, and policy advocates. The first part of the book makes the case from philosophy to praxis for an alternative to current rehabilitation counseling paradigms. Nothing of our current practice is lost, but much is gained in its translation into a social model that places community at the center of a client-centered practice. This approach creates the appropriate space to bring rehabilitation counseling and the family together. Read in synthesis, the first five chapters present the framework for a community-based approach to rehabilitation counseling beyond the family. The second part of the book recounts the family disability experience across disability contexts. Each chapter provides a unique profile that maps the current relationship between rehabilitation counseling and the family experience. These chapters can be read alone as the state of practice and a guide to current rehabilitation counseling interventions. The final part of the book considers a sampling of the professional implications and considerations of moving forward with a community-based model. It explores cultural perspectives on disability and their relationships to family from the vantage point of four established collective identities: Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans.
This chapter discusses the concept of care as the medium through which all community grows. It examines care as a term of art for community use and describes the relationship between family and rehabilitation counseling within the context of care. The chapter defines care in terms of the family ethos and a preliminary model emerges. Family roles are subject to change and shift in their interrelationships as the group adapts to the reality of care and support for the person with a disability. By building from the values that link care to community, the chapter explains a new understanding of how rehabilitation counseling enters into the caring relationship as a value-driven profession and to provide support for the caring family. Facilitating family care is justified by the assumed connection between family participation in rehabilitation efforts and optimal client outcomes.
The initial life-changing chaos that accompanies the traumatic event of spinal cord injury (SCI) profoundly disrupts family rhythm, routine, and identity. Successful negotiation of crisis and acute care, months of rehabilitation, and transition to community living depend on a well-coordinated interdisciplinary team approach by medical professionals, the person, and the family. This chapter illustrates two case studies to highlight the family experience in SCI and to contrast care issues with loved ones with tetraplegia and paraplegia. The psychosocial response of individual and family to SCI is framed by adjustment and adaptation to traumatic injury. The interdependency among family members, their functionality as a unit, and their overall affect is also intimately interconnected with their experiences within the community. Educational, health, independent living, and vocational services comprise the multidimensional support that community-based rehabilitation (CBR) provides by involving the family and community.
“Families in community-based rehabilitation counseling” is a work in progress. The rationale is strong for its development. It has resonance with the great trends of the social movement. It appears to reflect the aspirations of policy. It is admittedly an armchair social construct that has emerged from a conversation among experts. The rehabilitation counseling practice reflected in family experience does not amount to a unified family theory. Indeed, the community-based approach was never meant to be the resolution of professional family practice, just the remit for the bridge-building work ahead. This chapter discusses a final reflection on people’s own personal experience and parting thoughts on the major themes of practice and science such as family impact on rehabilitation counseling identity and practice, research issues and ideas, and considerations for research design.
The disability rights movement is the quintessential case study for empowerment and a window into rehabilitation counseling’s challenges in conceptualizing family practice. The political discourse between social power and disability exemplified in the disability rights movement is the space within which empowerment resides. Rehabilitation counseling must enter this politicized space to fully understand what empowerment means. The consumer-directed theory of empowerment (CDTE) provides an essential point of departure for clarifying empowerment in the context of families and community-based rehabilitation counseling. Psychological empowerment has affective, cognitive, behavioral, and relational dimensions that constitute people’s sense of empowerment. Empowerment in community development ranges from issues of self-advocacy and civic engagement in the most proximal of environments to mobilizing citizenry in community change at municipal, state, and global levels. The empowered client remains at the center of all service and maximally in control of planning, implementation, coordination, and evaluation.
We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in the helping professions as a result of new extraordinary stressful and traumatic events that have accelerated globally. While medical professionals, police, and other first responders prepare for the medical-physical rescue in a host of disaster scenarios, professional counselors are also called on to provide the mental health rescue. The disaster scenarios that take place on the global media stage add another dimension of reality that negatively fuels our experience of empathy fatigue. Overall, the epidemiological significance of global disaster rehabilitation means that we must be in a constant state of “mission readiness” for service to assist others that may be affected locally, regionally, or nationally. Counselor empathy and insight in acknowledging that oppressed minorities’ daily lives may include food insufficiency and the need to deal with these basic survival necessities must take precedence before any mental health counseling can occur.
The priorities of community mental health services exerted further pressures toward brief interventions that could reach more clients. Many health care systems in the United States have been developing practices such as managed care to reduce the number of psychotherapy sessions. This chapter defines brief psychotherapy, provides an overview of the types of brief psychotherapy, and outlines some of the major theoretical concepts and techniques associated with each of these therapeutic approaches. Brief therapy is dependent on the type of mental health condition, onset of the disorder, degree of client motivation, and the therapist’s ability to establish an effective therapeutic alliance and assist clients in attaining therapeutic goals. The values of brief therapists tend to be different from those of traditional, long-term therapists. Brief therapists also take the client’s presenting problem seriously and believe that understanding why a problem has arisen is often secondary or irrelevant to producing client change.
The chronically injured worker is perhaps one of the most fascinating psychosocial topics relating to disability. For the chronically injured worker, negotiating the often confusing and sometimes dehumanizing gauntlet of receiving workers’ compensation benefits (WCB) for employees fortunate enough to have coverage may quickly turn into an injured worker’s nightmare (Binder, 1992; Dodier, 1985; Fallenbaum, 2003; Gribich, McGartland, & Polgar, 1998; Willis, 1986). This chapter explores a number of topics related to the world of work, the psychological impact of disability on the disabled worker, the impact of chronic pain, systemic problems in the WCB and Social Security Administration’s (SSA) programs, key players in the gauntlet, the impact on the family of an injured worker, and the discipline of disability management (DM). It briefly explores the anatomy, theory, and assessment of chronic pain.
This book brings to life the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF; World Health Organization, 2001) for rehabilitation counselors. The book presents contemporary information that can be used to educate, guide practice, and provide the foundation for emerging research related to the psychosocial aspects of disability and chronic disease. It provides a powerful and informative resource for students, practitioners, and scholars in developing and reinforcing rehabilitation counseling principles that guide rehabilitation counseling education, practice, and research. The book is organized into five major parts containing 30 chapters. Part I presents the historical perspectives on illness and disability. Part II offers insights into the personal impact of illness and disability on individuals by looking closely at several unique psychosocial life experiences. It discusses various theories of adaptation to disability, the unique experiences faced by women with disabilities, gender differences regarding sexuality, multicultural and family perspectives of disability, and quality of life (QOL) issues for those with disabilities. Part III addresses issues such as involvement, support, and coping of family members (parents, children, spouses, and partners) which includes family caregiving and counseling, to promote optimal medical, physical, mental, emotional, and psychological functioning of the person with a disability. Part IV reflects the growing need for diagnostic, treatment, and preventive interventions, and the coordination of important resources to help persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities achieve optimal levels of independent functioning. It delves on substance use disorders, trauma-related mental health problems among combat veterans, and assistive technology. The final part addresses several contemporary issues faced by persons with chronic illness and disabilities (CIDs) that are relevant to counselors and practice. It discusses newer challenges that these individuals face, including obesity, poor nutrition, poverty, suicide, threat of terrorism, and depression, all of which are on the rise in the United States.
One of the fastest growing industries over the past decade is that of home health care, with record numbers of aging baby boomers retiring, and some of them requiring a caregiver to assist them to remain independent in their home for physical and/or supervisory personal assistance. Functional support can be informational, emotional, or instrumental. Depending on the type of disability a loved one presents, a caregiver may be providing any combination of all three types of support. Disabilities requiring some degree of caregiving for younger persons include the need for instrumental support for those with severe cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy from birth. As family caregivers are on the front line for providing care, they are also by default often required to provide monitoring of medical health status, identifying and in certain cases treating secondary complications, and coordinating with relevant medical professionals when needed about their loved one’s health status.
Persons with disabilities are sometimes ascribed angelical traits, despite the apparent paradox of attitudes that disability is a punishment for having sinned. This chapter explores the concept of attitudes, the sociological aspects of how attitudes toward persons with disabilities are formed, and what many of the myths and misconceptions are about disability. Finally, it discusses ways to enhance attitudes and the social consciousness toward disability. Despite the numerous suspected origins regarding negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities, nondisabled persons who are not blatantly prejudiced and unwilling to change their attitudes may only require greater exposure and accurate information regarding disability. With the 1990 Americans with Disabilities (ADA) representing the greatest civil rights legislation for persons with disabilities in U.S. history, persons with disabilities now enjoy greater access to employment, education, and social participation than ever before.