Despite their range of reactions, the rejoinders to Lyddon and Weill’s article (in this issue) converge on two fundamental issues facing cognitive psychotherapists in the postmodern era: (1) the relation between human knowing and reality and (2) contrasting constructions of the self. In this article I critically evaluate the various rejoinders with respect to these issues. I also suggest that recent developments in the cognitive sciences parallel the postmodern shift away from modernist dualisms and dichotomies toward a more complex and integrative view of psychological phenomena.
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This article seeks to contribute to a greater dialogue between Adlerian and constructivist psychotherapies by discussing (a) the many similarities between Adlerian and constructivist camps in terms of philosophical, theoretical, and practical considerations, (b) some unique features of individual psychology that may augment specific approaches in constructivist psychotherapy, (c) some of the unique features of constructivism that Adlerians may find enriching to their approach, and, (d) how this integrative dialogue may relate to the contemporary context of theoretical integration.
This article (a) describes the role of feedback mechanisms in developmental constructivist conceptions of new learning and change and (b) suggests that such mechanisms may function as a common change factor in psychotherapy. Salient sources of feedback identified with diverse psychotherapy approaches are described and conceptualized in constructivist terms. It is concluded that developmental constructivist epistemology may serve as a viable integrative framework for psychotherapy practice.
Implications of postmodern thought for the theory and practice of cognitive psychotherapy are examined in light of three postmodern influences—social constructionism, feminism, and multiculturalism. It is suggested that these influences challenge cognitive psychotherapists to (a) develop a greater appreciation for the ways in which human realities are socially negotiated, (b) provide more contextualized accounts of psychological problems, particularly with regard to the dimensions of gender, culture, and economic class, and (c) incorporate client empowerment strategies into their models of change.
The relation between client working models of attachment and therapist type of change assessments (first- vs. second-order) was examined in a sample of firsttime clients (N=46) seeking services through a university-based outpatient clinic. Results indicated that the problems and goals of clients who exhibited relatively secure working models of attachment were assessed by their therapists as being of a first-order nature, whereas the problems and goals of clients with more insecure working models of the world were assessed as being congruent with second-order conceptualizations. Implications for clinical research and the practice of cognitive psychotherapy are discussed.
Women who have been raped often experience profound psychological and emotional changes due, in part, to the difficulty inherent in assimilating this experience. Rape survivors may alter their entire world view, and may develop cognitive schemas that are maladaptive and dysfunctional. In order to assist women in constructing more adaptive schemas, it is often necessary to access and reprocess trauma-related beliefs. In this article, cognitive-experiential reprocessing (CER) is introduced as a viable approach for reprocessing the trauma of rape. In the context of a case study involving a young rape survivor, the rationale, goals, and practical considerations of CER are outlined.