There is a limited but growing literature which suggests that stalking is a variant of intimate violence. The purpose of this study was to examine physical, psychological, and stalking victimization and perpetration among males and females. Alcohol use was also examined. The sample was 46 male and 84 female undergraduate students who reported stalking victimization and perpetration after a difficult breakup, and psychological and physical victimization and perpetration during that specific relationship. Overall, 27% of the sample study was classified into the stalking victimization group, which is consistent with other stalking prevalence rates among college samples. For females, stalking victimization was significantly associated with physical and psychological abuse victimization. For males, stalking victimization was significantly associated with psychological abuse victimization. However, there was also a strong significant reciprocal relationship of stalking and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration, especially for males. Also, alcohol use was significantly associated with victimization and perpetration of stalking and psychological abuse for males. The data from this study contribute to the hypothesis that stalking is a variant of or extension of intimate violence, especially for females. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
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- Go to article: Stalker Profiles With and Without Protective Orders: Reoffending or Criminal Justice Processing?
Research indicates that stalking is an extension of intimate partner violence. The overall purpose of this study was to better understand stalkers by examining the association between a protective order history and the court’s processing of subsequent stalking, and to examine patterns of reoffending. This study examined a sample of 346 males who were charged with stalking in 1999 in one state. Subjects were partitioned into three groups: (1) males without protective orders; (2) males with one prior protective order; and (3) males with two or more prior protective orders. Almost two-thirds of the stalkers had a protective order against them at some point in the study, suggesting that stalking is associated with intimate partner violence. Results also found a linear trend with many of the criminal justice involvement variables and protective order history prior to 1999. Those charged with first-degree stalking were more likely to be found guilty initially, and about one-third of all three study groups had the initial felony stalking charge amended. Of those charged with second-degree stalking, only 7% of the group with two or more protective orders was initially found guilty, which was substantially less than the other two groups. And, when all the amendment dispositions were considered, there were no significant differences by group in guilty and dismissed dispositions for the index stalking charge. Further, consistent with previous criminal justice involvement, the group with two or more protective orders was more likely to have subsequent felony charges than the other two groups. Implications are discussed.
- Go to article: Intimate Sexual Victimization Among Women With Protective Orders: Types and Associations of Physical and Mental Health Problems
Intimate Sexual Victimization Among Women With Protective Orders: Types and Associations of Physical and Mental Health Problems
Intimate sexual violence was examined among a sample of women who had recently obtained protective orders against male partners using three groups: no sexual victimization (n = 368), sexual insistence (n = 114), and threatened and/or forced sex (n = 117). Differences in childhood sexual abuse as well as types of partner psychological abuse, stalking, and severe physical violence experiences were found across the groups. Multivariate analysis showed that women with no sexual victimization had significantly fewer mental health problems than women who had experienced sexual insistence and women who had been threatened or forced to have sex. Findings from this study underscore the importance of health, mental health, and criminal justice professionals assessing for a range of sexually abusive acts when working with victims of partner violence.
- Go to article: Victim Service and Justice System Representative Responses About Partner Stalking: What Do Professionals Recommend?
Victim Service and Justice System Representative Responses About Partner Stalking: What Do Professionals Recommend?
Research suggests that partner stalking is associated with reassault and lethality as well as increased psychological distress for victims. However, there is a significant gap in information about stalking interventions and the responses of health, mental health, law enforcement, social services, and criminal justice professionals to women experiencing partner stalking. The purpose of this study is to examine the ideas about appropriate and effective responses to stalking victims from professionals in victim services and the justice system. The study also examined differences among rural and urban representatives because prior studies have shown significant differences between rural and urban areas on experiences and responses to partner violence. A total of 152 key informants (38 urban and 114 rural) were interviewed. Study results suggest a need for more training for victim services and justice system professionals on stalking and service needs of women who experience stalking in the context of partner violence.
- Go to article: Help-Seeking and Coping Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence in Rural and Urban Women
Women experiencing intimate partner violence may use a variety of help-seeking resources and coping strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine rural (n = 378) and urban (n = 379) women’s help seeking, coping, and perceptions of the helpfulness of resources used in dealing with partner violence. Overall, results suggest that women from both areas utilized a variety of help-seeking resources and coping strategies in significantly different ways. Urban women used more help-seeking resources than rural women. Urban and rural women used different types of resources. Rural women perceived the justice system services as less helpful than urban women. Coping strategies and help seeking are related, with problem-focused coping associated with the use of more formalized help-seeking resources. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Intimate partner violence is a significant health problem for women, with consequences extending to work as well as society at large. This article describes workplace interference tactics, how women cope with violence at work, and workplace supports for a sample of recently employed women with domestic violence orders (DVO; n = 518). Results indicate that violent partners used a wide range of work interference tactics, that women were more likely to tell someone at work about the victimization than they were to hide the information, and that coworkers and supervisors provided a range of supports to women who did disclose their situation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
- Go to article: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Sexual Coercion and Degradation Among Women in Violent Relationships Who Do and Do Not Report Forced Sex
A Mixed-Methods Examination of Sexual Coercion and Degradation Among Women in Violent Relationships Who Do and Do Not Report Forced Sex
Although partner sexual abuse is clearly an important dimension of partner violence, it has received less research attention than partner physical and psychological abuse. This article contributes to the literature by examining similarities and differences in coercive and degrading sexual tactics experienced by women who do (n = 31) and women who do not (n = 31) report forced sex using quantitative and qualitative data. The women in the sample had all been recently (within the past 6 months) stalked by a violent intimate partner. Results suggest that both women who do and women who do not report forced sex experience various coercive and degrading tactics within the context of sexual activity. Results also suggest that multiple sexual abuse dimensions should be considered within the context of partner psychological abuse, physical abuse, and stalking and that more research on understanding the outcomes associated with dimensions of sexual abuse within the context of physical and psychological abuse is needed.
- Go to article: The Impact of Partner Stalking on Mental Health and Protective Order Outcomes Over Time
The goals of this article are to examine stalking victimization over time among a large sample (n = 662) of women who received a protective order against a violent partner and to examine the impact of stalking on mental health and protective order outcomes. Findings suggest that stalking is a significant risk factor for other forms of partner violence (e.g., psychological, physical, and sexual violence) and that the experience of being stalked by a violent partner contributes uniquely to women’s perceptions of psychological distress, personal safety, and perceptions of protective order effectiveness. Both the criminal justice system and victim service representatives need to be vigilant in educating women about the increased risk of stalking to their safety and mental health. Further, study findings suggest that stalking must be addressed to prevent future physical and psychological harm in partner violence cases.
This article is one of the first to extensively compare characteristics of women who do and do not report stalking by a violent partner or ex-partner using a large sample of women with civil protective orders. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in relationship and victimization history characteristics, mental health symptoms, help-seeking, and protective order violations for women who report being stalked in the past year (n = 345) by the partner they received a protective order against compared to women who received a protective order against a violent partner but who report no stalking by that partner ever in the relationship (n = 412). Results indicate that women who report partner stalking have more severe partner violence victimization, histories, increased distress, greater fear, and more protective order violations, suggesting that partner stalking victimization warrants more research and practice attention.
- Go to article: Lifetime Victimization and Psychological Distress: Cluster Profiles of Out of Treatment Drug-Involved Women
Lifetime Victimization and Psychological Distress: Cluster Profiles of Out of Treatment Drug-Involved Women
K-means clustering techniques were used to identify four cluster profiles characterized by unique patterns of victimization and psychological distress and further differentiated by distinct patterns of risk and protection across multiple life domains among a sample of 149 crack-using women. Results of this study suggest that important differences exist in patterns of victimization and psychological distress among drug-involved women. Identification of this variation can be used to tailor intervention strategies to the particular needs of different subgroups within the population of crack-using women.