This chapter focuses on integrative approaches to trauma therapy, crisis intervention, and disaster response. The purpose of the chapter is to identify and explain best practices for integrative mental health responses aimed at supporting survivors of trauma, crises, and disasters. While each unique situation requires a tailored response, this chapter describes the basic principles that apply to nearly all emergent, mass casualty, and traumatizing events.
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This chapter focuses on the current international context of disability-related issues and on the expanding role of rehabilitation counselors (
RCs) around the world. It offers definitions of disability and synopses of policy issues that are operational within an international framework. The scope of practice of RCs and other professionals working with disability globally are illuminated. The chapter examines trends and useful practices in the relevant international literatures, summarizing key psychosocial issues across the life span. The chapter concludes with recommendations for practice-based applications aimed at enhancing the lives of people living with disabilities.
This chapter focuses on understanding issues of loss and grief as well as their intersections with trauma experiences. It examines the classical theories associated with loss and grief, describing the transition to a postmodern perspective of how grief is experienced. The chapter describes interventions that can be used with clients experiencing loss and grief, along with the counseling implications. Practice-based resources are available online.
Trauma Counseling, 2nd Edition:Theories and Interventions for Managing Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
This book is a much-needed update that offers an in-depth and comprehensive exploration of the variety of relevant issues concerning clients’ traumatic, crisis-related, and disaster events that commonly are encountered by professional counselors and other mental health professionals. The textbook is framed, theoretically, within a systemic paradigm, including important recent physiological and neurobiological understandings of the impact of trauma on individuals. The book is organized into six sections. Section I offers a foundation for understanding the various trauma-associated issues. In fact, it tries, with a great deal of intentionality, in the first three chapters, to construct a trauma scaffold of foundational knowledge, upon which students can build increasingly more complex conceptualizations of more nuanced clinical issues associated with trauma. Section II explicates relevant constructs, such as loss and grief; these constructs continue to build upon and expand the trauma scaffolding of the first section. It also offers information about the traumatic events that may be experienced by specific age groups, people who are vulnerable, and other particular populations. Section III begins with his explication of the moral psychology of evil. Section IV presents a broader systemic context for understanding the effects of trauma on groups of people. Section V analyzes assessment methods and interventions associated with psychological trauma. It identifies and discusses the larger scope of integrative approaches to trauma, crisis, and disaster intervention, thus emphasizing the importance of more systemic models. Section VI begins by presenting ethical perspectives on trauma work. It explicates vicarious traumatization, highlighting the need for counselor selfawareness. It also focuses on the importance of mindfulness-based self-care for counselors, encouraging clinicians to be healing counselors rather than wounded healers.
The purpose of this chapter is to explicate the impact that war has on members of the military. In describing the effects of war on combat veterans and the challenges posed for those who return from war, potential needs for relevant mental health services are made explicit. The chapter identifies practice implications and offers an online list of resources for professionals working with military veterans.
- Go to chapter: Conclusion: The Continued Need for Developing an Integrative Systemic Approach to Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
Conclusion: The Continued Need for Developing an Integrative Systemic Approach to Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
This final chapter focuses on synthesizing the information about trauma, stress, crisis, and disaster presented in the previous 32 chapters of this textbook. As an extension of analyzing the counseling implications presented across all of the chapters of this book, Chapter 33 presents the details of an integrative systemic approach to trauma (
ISAT) model, with the hope that it can expand upon and continue to construct the trauma scaffold described in the first four chapters of this textbook.
- Go to chapter: An Introduction to Counseling Survivors of Trauma: Beginning to Understand the Historical and Psychosocial Implications of Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
An Introduction to Counseling Survivors of Trauma: Beginning to Understand the Historical and Psychosocial Implications of Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
This chapter introduces foundational knowledge necessary for understanding the effects of psychosocial trauma, stress, crisis, and disaster. It offers brief discussions about the historical implications of how psychosocial trauma has come to be defined as well as how the related diagnostic categories have developed. Finally, the importance of recognizing the human capacity for resilience and growth, in the face of trauma, is emphasized.
- Go to chapter: A Confluence of Crises: Migration, Anthropogenic Climate Change, Mass Casualties, War, and Civil Unrest
A Confluence of Crises: Migration, Anthropogenic Climate Change, Mass Casualties, War, and Civil Unrest
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the confluence of crisis issues that relates to migration, anthropogenic climate change, war, and civil unrest. Such a confluence of crises is complex and involves interrelated situations that may result in humanitarian emergencies and mass casualties. Events of the 21st century have made clear how critical it is for counselors and other helping professionals to understand the convergences of these very real human-behavior-driven dynamics and to intercede, as necessary, in ways that are productive. The major objective of this chapter is to elucidate this crucial contemporary issue of multiple intersecting crises and trauma events.
- Go to chapter: Racial, Ethnic, and Immigration Intolerance: A Framework for Understanding Violence and Trauma
This chapter focuses on the intolerance experienced by marginalized groups of people, based on race, ethnicity, and immigration status. It reviews current knowledge about violence-based trauma among minority groups and offers discussions that highlight historical patterns of and risk factors for
PTSD. The chapter briefly summarizes interventions and treatments that relate to race-based, ethnicity-based, historical, and intergenerational trauma.
This chapter examines the history and evolution of violence in schools and presents the various mental health and violence prevention theories and interventions that have developed and continue to emerge in the ever-changing landscape of the spillover of societal violence into spaces historically considered safe, such as American schools. This chapter delves into the discrepancies in response time and method, funding, and maintenance of follow-up in districts and communities that have fewer resources. Statistics regarding the occurrence of violence in public and private schools are presented, and strategies aimed at increasing safety are discussed. Brief and long-term counseling approaches are explored, and resources are offered online at Springer Connect.
The purpose of this chapter is to outline some of the consequences of trauma that occur during early childhood. The chapter discusses particular trauma-relevant issues in early childhood, identifies therapeutic responses, and examines the counseling implications. These major sections are followed by a summary of the chapter and an online list of relevant resources.
This chapter focuses on issues associated with intimate partner violence (
IPV). It examines the impact on survivors of IPVas well as on families, communities, and societies. The chapter presents theories for contextualizing and understanding IPVas well as offering strategies for counseling survivors of IPV.
This chapter focuses on the importance of clinical supervisors having sufficient knowledge about trauma, stress, crisis, and disaster in order to supervise and mentor adequately. Supervisees are likely to bring complex cases into supervision, cases that involve multiple dimensions of crisis, stress, loss, grief, disaster, and trauma. For counselors serving traumatized clients, the potential for experiencing vicarious trauma increases. Supervisors need to possess the trauma-informed skills to offer relevant clinical supervision as well as to guide, mentor, and support supervisees on issues related to counselor self-care, in the face of dealing with stressful clinical scenarios.
This chapter focuses on issues related to mass violence and the effects of mass violence on the populace, both in terms of proximal and distal locations of those affected. The increase of mass violence has caused global concern. The effects of mass violence events continue to traumatize those who are affected. This chapter offers insight to help understand the impacts of mass violence on survivors, families, communities, and society.
- Go to chapter: Theoretical Contexts of Trauma Counseling: Understanding the Effects of Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
Theoretical Contexts of Trauma Counseling: Understanding the Effects of Trauma, Stress, Crisis, and Disaster
This chapter introduces multiple theoretical contexts for understanding the impact of trauma. Building upon the foundational information presented in Chapter 1, the current chapter examines how the construct of trauma evolved from primarily life-span and psychological understandings, to a more systems and psychosocial perspective, to our current neurobiological realizations about the effects of trauma. The connections among facets of trauma, which are described in Chapters 1 and 2, offer a foundational scaffold upon which to understand the profound effects of traumatic experiences.
This chapter focuses on introducing the reader to theories about stress and crisis and on promoting basic stress management and crisis intervention skills. Stress and crisis often intersect with trauma and disaster events and are foundational aspects of the scaffold being created, in the first four chapters of this book, for grasping the profound effects that stress, crisis, disaster, and trauma can have at individual and systemic levels.
This chapter focuses on the importance of understanding historical trauma and how its legacy influences communities that have been affected by trauma. One major purpose of this chapter is to explore the lived experiences of individuals and communities exposed to trauma, in ways that can lead to trauma-informed interventions, especially among those affected by historical trauma. One such research-based strategy is highlighted and discussed in detail.