The Butterfly Hug was originated and developed by Lucina Artigas during her work performed with the survivors of Hurricane Pauline in Acapulco, Mexico, 1997. For the origination and development of this method, Lucina Artigas was honored in 2000 with the Creative Innovation Award by the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) International Association. By 2009, The Butterfly Hug had become standard practice for clinicians in the field while working with survivors of man-made and natural catastrophes. The “Butterfly Hug” provides a way to self-administer dual attention stimulation (DAS) for an individual or for group work. This chapter explains many uses for the Butterfly Hug. During the EMDR Standard Protocol, some clinicians have also used it with adults and children to facilitate primary processing of a fundamental traumatic memory or memories. Use of the Butterfly Hug in session with the therapist can be a self-soothing experience for many trauma-therapy clients.
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Studies have evaluated the usefulness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) following disaster events finding that this approach could be effective in significantly reducing post-traumatic symptoms. EMDR has been reported as effective in the treatment of children following a hurricane in Hawaii. Group therapy is a well-proven form of treatment for traumatized children and adolescents. The EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) was developed by members of AMAMECRISIS when they were overwhelmed by the extensive need for mental health services after Hurricane Pauline ravaged the western coast of Mexico in 1997. This protocol combines the Standard EMDR Treatment Phases 1 through 8. Designed initially for work with children, the EMDR-IGTP has also been found suitable for group work with adults. The protocol is structured within a play therapy format and has been used with disaster victims ages 7 to 50 +.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Scripted Protocols: Basics and Special Situations
Scripting is a way to inform and remind the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) practitioner of the component parts, sequence, and language used to create an effective outcome. As EMDR is a fairly complicated process, this book provides step-by-step scripts that will enable beginning practitioners to enhance their expertise more quickly. The book is separated into nine parts. The Client History part represents the first of the eight phases of EMDR treatment. The ability to gather, formulate, and then use the material in the intake part of treatment is crucial to an optimal outcome in any therapist’s work. Part II includes an important element of the Preparation Phase that addresses ways to introduce and explain EMDR, trauma, and the adaptive information processing (AIP) model. The importance of teaching clients how to create personal resources is the topic of Part III. Here, an essential element of the Preparation/Second Phase of EMDR work is addressed to ensure clients’ abilities to contain their affect and remain stable as they move through the EMDR process. Part IV shows how to work with clients concerning the targeting of their presenting problems when the usual ways do not work such as usage of drawings to concretize clients’ conceptualization of their issues and usage of an alternative initial targeting method. Part V includes protocols that have been scripted based on the material that appears in Francine Shapiro’s EMDR textbook. Parts VI and VII address EMDR and early intervention procedures for man-made and natural catastrophes for individuals and groups. Performance enhancement and clinician’s self-care are dealt with in the final two parts of the book.
This book provides a standard that reflects the basic elements of the 11-Step Standard Procedure; and the Standard 3-Pronged EMDR Protocol as they are applied to different populations. The diverse population includes children and adolescents; couples; clients suffering with complex post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders; clients with anxiety; clients who demonstrate addictive behaviors; clients who deal with pain; clinicians themselves. The book serves as a basis to encourage research into these various applications for EMDR. It is divided into seven parts. Part I is devoted to the scripted EMDR protocols such as olfactory stimulation, which are used to develop resources for children and adolescents who may have suffered traumatic events in their life. The protocols take into account the particular difficulties of this developmental group and help minimize common difficulties and major hurdles. Part II describes scripted EMDR protocols designed by couples therapists and sex therapists to further the progress of their patients precisely targeting templates of relational interaction, anxiety, or sexual dysfunction. Part III concerns the scripted protocols for dissociative disorders and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. The protocols represent the structured scripted efforts of many trauma therapists over a considerable number of years. Parts IV and V of the book address the concretization of much needed scripts for the EMDR treatment of addictions and pain—two interconnected public health worries. Part VI looks at the world of people’s adaptation to fears and tackles the usage of scripted protocols to detoxify the impact of specific phobias. Part VII demonstrates the usage of scripted EMDR protocols in clinician care and in the management of secondary post-traumatic stress disorder and vicarious traumatization.
- Go to article: El Protocolo de EMDR para Incidentes Críticos Recientes: Reporte de Seguimiento de su Aplicación en Situación de Masacre Humana
El Protocolo de EMDR para Incidentes Críticos Recientes: Reporte de Seguimiento de su Aplicación en Situación de Masacre Humana
El presente artículo reporta los resultados de seguimiento de nuestro estudio de campo (Jarero & Uribe, 2011), en el que se investigó la aplicación del Protocolo de Terapia de Reprocesamiento y Desensibilización a través del Movimiento Ocular para Incidentes Críticos Recientes (EMDR-PRECI) en una situación de masacre humana. Se aplicó una sola sesión de tratamiento a 32 empleados forenses de la Procuraduría General del Estado de Durango en México, quienes estaban trabajabando con 258 cuerpos recuperados de fosas clandestinas. Los resultados pre y post-tratamiento mostraron una mejoría significativa, tanto en el grupo de atención inmediata (GAI), como en el grupo de atención demorada (GAD), en los puntajes de la Impact of Events Scale (IES) y en el Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT). En este estudio reportamos la evaluación de seguimiento, la cual se realizó después de 3 y 5 meses de la aplicación del tratamiento. Los puntajes obtenidos en el seguimiento muestran que los resultados del tratamiento original se mantuvieron, y que continuó presentándose una disminución significativa de los síntomas de estrés postraumático y de TEPT auto-reportados, entre el post-tratamiento y el seguimiento. Durante el período de seguimiento, los empleados continuaron su labor forense con los restos humanos recuperados y estuvieron permanentemente expuestos a estresores emocionales aterradores y a amenazas constantes relacionadas con su seguridad. Lo anterior sugiere que el EMDR-PRECI fue una intervención temprana efectiva al reducir el estrés postraumático en un grupo de adultos traumatizados que continuaron laborando bajo estresores extremos en una situación de masacre humana. Parece ser que el tratamiento ayudo a prevenir el desarrollo de TEPT crónico y a aumentar la resiliencia psicológica y emocional.
- Go to article: The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Follow-Up Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation
The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Follow-Up Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation
This article reports the follow-up results of our field study (Jarero & Uribe, 2011) that investigated the application of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI) in a human massacre situation. A single individual session was provided to 32 forensic personnel of the State Attorney General in the Mexican state of Durango who were working with 258 bodies recovered from clandestine graves. Pre-post results showed significant improvement for both immediate treatment and waitlist/delayed treatment groups on the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT). In this study, we report the follow-up assessment, which was conducted, at 3 and 5 months posttreatment. Follow-up scores showed that the original treatment results were maintained, with a further significant reduction of self-reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress and PTSD between posttreatment and follow-up. During the follow-up period, the employees continued to work with the recovered corpses and were continually exposed to horrific emotional stressors, with ongoing threats to their own safety. This suggests that EMDR-PRECI was an effective early intervention, reducing traumatic stress for a group of traumatized adults continuing to work under extreme stressors in a human massacre situation. It appears that the treatment may have helped to prevent the development of chronic PTSD and to increase psychological and emotional resilience.
- Go to article: Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients
Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. EMDR-IGTP intensive therapy was administered for 3 consecutive days, twice daily, to 24 adult women diagnosed with different types of cancer (cervical, breast, colon, bladder, and skin) who had PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and treatment. The data was analyzed using factorial ANOVA with the effects of the EMDR-IGTP evaluated with the Short PTSD Rating Interview as dependent variable and group (two groups of patients: active phase and follow-up phase of cancer treatment) and time (four time points) as independent variables. Post hoc analyses were carried out. Results showed significant main effects for time and group. No significant interaction was found. Results also showed an overall subjective improvement in the participants. This pilot study suggests that intensive administration of the EMDR-IGTP can be a valuable support for cancer patients with PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and treatment. Further research with randomized controlled studies is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of EMDR-IGTP in this population.
- Go to article: Étude pilote de recherche sur l'apport du protocole de traitement intégratif de groupe par la désensibilisation et le retraitement par les mouvements oculaires chez des patientes atteintes de cancer
Étude pilote de recherche sur l'apport du protocole de traitement intégratif de groupe par la désensibilisation et le retraitement par les mouvements oculaires chez des patientes atteintes de cancer
L'objectif de cette recherche est d'évaluer l'efficacité du protocole de traitement intégratif de groupe par la désensibilisation et le retraitement par les mouvements oculaires (PTIG-EMDR) dans la réduction des symptômes d'état de stress post-traumatique (ESPT) liés au diagnostic et au traitement de différents types de cancer chez des femmes adultes. La thérapie intensive PTIG-EMDR a été administrée pendant trois jours consécutifs, deux fois par jour, à 24 femmes adultes diagnostiquées avec différents types de cancer (cancer du col de l'utérus, du sein, du côlon, de la vessie et de la peau) et présentant des symptômes d'ESPT liés à leur diagnostic et à leur traitement. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide d'une ANOVA factorielle sur les effets du PTIG-EMDR, évalués avec le Short PTSD Rating Interview (entretien court d'évaluation de l'ESPT) comme variable dépendante, et le groupe (deux groupes de patientes : phase active et phase de suivi du traitement du cancer) et le temps (quatre intervalles de temps) comme variables indépendantes. Des analyses post hoc ont été effectuées. Les résultats ont montré des effets principaux significatifs pour le temps et le groupe. Aucune interaction importante n'a été observée. Les résultats ont également montré une amélioration subjective globale chez les participantes. Cette étude pilote suggère qu'une administration intensive du PTIG-EMDR peut être un apport valable pour des patients atteints du cancer et présentant des symptômes d'ESPT liés au diagnostic et au traitement. D'autres recherches comportant des études contrôlées randomisées seront nécessaires pour démontrer l'efficacité du PTIG-EMDR sur cette population.
- Go to article: Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients With Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms
Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients With Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms
This randomized controlled trial extended the investigation previously conducted by Jarero et al. (2015) which found that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol adapted for ongoing traumatic stress (EMDR-IGTP-OTS) was effective in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. The current study sought to determine if the results could be replicated and if the treatment would also be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participants in treatment (N = 35) and no-treatment control (N = 30) groups completed pre, post, and follow-up measurements using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) (PCL-5) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the EMDR-IGTP-OTS was effective in significantly reducing symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, with symptoms maintained at 90-day follow-up and with large effect sizes (e.g., d = 1.80). A comparison of the treatment and no-treatment control groups showed significantly greater decreases for the treatment group on symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. No significant correlation was found when exploring the relationship between scores on the Adverse Life Experiences scale and scores indicating pretreatment severity of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. This study suggests that EMDR-IGTP-OTS may be an efficient and effective way to address cancer-related posttraumatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms.
Experiencing cancer is a peculiar stressor within the infrastructure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because this debilitating disease involves ongoing stressors and is both acute and potentially chronic. The experience can include a wide range of associated adverse events, such as tumor detection, diagnosis, severity of disease, and prognosis; aggressive treatment; disfigurement and bodily dysfunction; side effects of treatment; impaired physical, social, and occupational functioning; and sometimes, recurrence and diagnosis of terminal illness. This article provides a detailed description of the clinical application of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) Adapted for Adolescents and Adults Living with Ongoing Traumatic Stress for the patients with cancer. This protocol administers the eight phases of EMDR individual treatment to a group of patients using an art therapy format (i.e., drawings) and the butterfly hug (a self-administered bilateral stimulation method to process traumatic material). A previous study (Jarero et al., 2015) showed that after 6 sessions of EMDR-IGTP, there was a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. Effects were maintained at 90-day follow-up. In this article, we discuss how this protocol can be used to effectively provide intensive EMDR treatment to large groups of patients, and we provide detailed instructions for its provision to address one of the major psychological dimensions of cancer: the ongoing traumatic stress responses experienced by patients with cancer. A clinical example illustrates the treatment process.