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- Go to article: Bystander Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence: An Experimental Evaluation of Online and In-Person Bystander Intervention Programs
Bystander Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence: An Experimental Evaluation of Online and In-Person Bystander Intervention Programs
Rates of sexual violence (SV) and dating violence (DV) are high on college campuses; federal law mandates colleges provide SV/DV prevention programming to incoming students. Programs showing the strongest empirical support are bystander programs; however, their small group format makes it impractical to use them with large student bodies. In a pilot feasibility study, we compared in-person and e-intervention SV/DV bystander intervention programs and randomly assigned 562 students to one of the programs. Students completed measures of knowledge and attitudes at 3 points over 6 months. Both groups changed significantly in the expected direction on all measures, with no differences between groups in change over time. Results suggest that e-interventions may be a viable alternative to in-person SV/DV programs for meeting federal mandates.
- Go to article: The Reported Availability of U.S. Domestic Violence Services to Victims Who Vary by Age, Sexual Orientation, and Gender
The Reported Availability of U.S. Domestic Violence Services to Victims Who Vary by Age, Sexual Orientation, and Gender
Grassroots movements during the 1970s established several types of emergency services for battered women seeking to find refuge from or leave an abusive relationship. As time went by, the range of services offered by these agencies grew to include counseling, legal services, outreach, and other services, and battered women can now access over 2,000 domestic violence (DV) agencies throughout the United States for assistance. At the same time, these services have come under increasing scrutiny for their inability or unwillingness to provide their existing services to some populations of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. In this article, we focus on DV agencies’ ability to provide their services to various populations that have documented evidence of being underserved due to their age, gender, and/or sexual orientation. We present information on the percentage of agencies that report being able to provide victim-related services to each of these groups. We also consider various regional, state, and agency characteristics that may predict the availability of services to these underserved groups. Overall, agencies report that adolescents and men are the least likely groups to which they are able to provide their victim services. Results are discussed utilizing a human rights perspective that stresses that all IPV victims, regardless of age, sexual orientation, or gender, should have access to services provided by DV agencies.
- Go to article: Predicting Potentially Life-Threatening Partner Violence by Women Toward Men: A Preliminary Analysis
Predicting Potentially Life-Threatening Partner Violence by Women Toward Men: A Preliminary Analysis
Researchers have documented predictors of life-threatening violence by men toward women. Little research has assessed predictors of life-threatening violence toward men by women. We investigated such predictors in a sample of 302 men who sustained partner violence (PV) and sought help. Based on prior research on women as victims, we examined the following as potential predictors: demographics of the participant, his female partner, and their relationship; relationship power imbalances; her use of various forms of PV; her alcohol/drug use; his use of various forms of PV; his mental health and substance abuse; and his help seeking and social support. Logistic regressions indicated that there were 2 consistent predictors: the female partner’s frequency of physical PV and the number of sources from which the participant sought help.
- Go to article: More Than a Literature Review: The Partner Abuse State of Knowledge Articles and Online Database
- Go to article: The Reported Availability of U.S. Domestic Violence Services to Victims Who Vary by Immigration Status, Primary Language, and Disability
The Reported Availability of U.S. Domestic Violence Services to Victims Who Vary by Immigration Status, Primary Language, and Disability
This article is the second of a two-part series that investigates the reported availability of domestic violence (DV) services for individuals in traditionally underserved populations. This specific article focuses on immigrants, individuals with limited English language skills, and individuals with disabilities. The sample consisted of 213 DV agency directors from across the nation who responded about the availability of services in their agencies in several different domains: housing, legal, counseling/mental health, education, transportation, and outreach services. The results indicate a fairly high level of services across the board, especially with regard to serving immigrants, individuals with limited English language skills, and individuals with disabilities. Services for individuals with hearing impairments and undocumented immigrants were less available. Recommendations for practice and future research are discussed.
- Go to article: Gender Differences in Psychological, Physical, and Sexual Aggression Among College Students Using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales
Gender Differences in Psychological, Physical, and Sexual Aggression Among College Students Using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales
In response to criticisms of the Conflict Tactics Scales, Straus revised the original scale to include sexual aggression and injury. The purpose of the present study was to use this new scale to replicate and expand existing knowledge of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression in dating relationships. Four-hundred-eighty-one college students completed the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales. As expected, females reported perpetrating more psychological aggression than males; there were no gender differences in reported physical aggression; and psychological and physical aggression tended to co-occur. Contrary to previous research, there were no gender differences in injuries. As expected, males reported perpetrating more sexual coercion than females; however, females also reported perpetrating sexual aggression, and there were no gender differences in reported victimization. For males, sexual coercion perpetration (not victimization) was related to the perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological aggression. For females, both sexual coercion perpetration and victimization were related to the perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression and victimization from physical aggression, but not to physical aggression perpetration.
- Go to article: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intimate Partner Aggression: A Preliminary Study
Social learning theory posits that, because aggression against intimates runs in families, children learn how to behave aggressively through watching their parents and being reinforced for their own aggression. This theory considers only environmental influences on familial resemblance; however, familial resemblance could also be due to genetic factors. The current study uses a twin design (134 monozygotic, 41 dizygotic) to examine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in intimate aggression. Model-fitting analyses consistently showed that shared genes explained the familial resemblance in psychological and physical intimate partner aggression; the remaining variance was explained by unique environments. Multivariate model-fitting analyses showed that most of the genetic influences responsible for the receipt of aggression were also responsible for its use, suggesting that there is a genetic predisposition to get involved in aggressive relationships. These results challenge the prevailing theory to explain familial resemblance in intimate aggression.
- Go to article: Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample
Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample
Children whose parents seek help for partner violence (PV) victimization are at an increased risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral health problems. The literature has examined this phenomenon primarily among children of battered women. This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral health of children whose fathers have sought help for PV victimization and compares them to children of men from the general population. Children whose fathers sought help for PV victimization were less likely to live with their fathers. Bivariate analyses showed that children of male victims had elevated scores in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-related areas of behavioral health; many of these findings remain in multivariate analyses, especially among older children. The implications of the results are discussed for researchers and social service practitioners.
College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.