The comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance abuse gives sufficient reason to treat patients who are addicted with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The concept of addiction memory (AM) and its importance in relapse occurrence and maintenance of learned addictive behavior has gained growing acceptance in the field of addiction research and treatment. The name craving extinguished (CravEx) was given to this EMDR strategy because craving seemed to vanish during EMDR reprocessing of the addiction memory in some of the patients. CravEx, as part of a treatment for comorbid addictive clients, focuses on reprocessing of the addiction memory thus leading to stabilization in the addiction. Major traumas can impact on addictive behaviors and are important to include in treatment planning. Anecdotal reports from clinicians indicate an effect of the reprocessing of the addiction memory in patients addicted to heroin or psychostimulants.
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This book provides a standard that reflects the basic elements of the 11-Step Standard Procedure; and the Standard 3-Pronged EMDR Protocol as they are applied to different populations. The diverse population includes children and adolescents; couples; clients suffering with complex post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders; clients with anxiety; clients who demonstrate addictive behaviors; clients who deal with pain; clinicians themselves. The book serves as a basis to encourage research into these various applications for EMDR. It is divided into seven parts. Part I is devoted to the scripted EMDR protocols such as olfactory stimulation, which are used to develop resources for children and adolescents who may have suffered traumatic events in their life. The protocols take into account the particular difficulties of this developmental group and help minimize common difficulties and major hurdles. Part II describes scripted EMDR protocols designed by couples therapists and sex therapists to further the progress of their patients precisely targeting templates of relational interaction, anxiety, or sexual dysfunction. Part III concerns the scripted protocols for dissociative disorders and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. The protocols represent the structured scripted efforts of many trauma therapists over a considerable number of years. Parts IV and V of the book address the concretization of much needed scripts for the EMDR treatment of addictions and pain—two interconnected public health worries. Part VI looks at the world of people’s adaptation to fears and tackles the usage of scripted protocols to detoxify the impact of specific phobias. Part VII demonstrates the usage of scripted EMDR protocols in clinician care and in the management of secondary post-traumatic stress disorder and vicarious traumatization.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy Scripted Protocols and Summary Sheets:Treating Trauma in Somatic and Medical-Related Conditions
This book focuses on applying eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) scripted protocols to medical related conditions. It delivers a wide range of step-by-step protocols that enable beginning clinicians as well as seasoned EMDR clinicians, trainers, and consultants alike to enhance their expertise more quickly when working with clients who present with medical-related issues. The scripts are conveniently outlined in an easy-to-use, manual style template, facilitating a reliable, consistent format for use with EMDR clients. The scripts distill the essence of the standard EMDR protocols. They reinforce the specific parts, sequence, and language used to create an effective outcome, and illustrate how clinicians are using this framework to work with a variety of medical related issues while maintaining the integrity of the Adaptive Information Processing model. Following a brief outline of the basic elements of EMDR procedures and protocols, the book focuses on applying EMDR scripted protocols to key medical issues. The book is organized into three parts comprising ten chapters. Chapter one presents illness and somatic disorders protocol. Chapter two describes EMDR therapy for somatic disorders and medical issues. Chapter three discusses EMDR therapy to treat the sequelae of somatic illness and medical treatment. Chapter four presents the reenactment protocol. Chapters five and six discuss EMDR therapy in psycho-oncology and head and neck cancer client group. Chapter seven presents EMDR protocol for PTSD in patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Chapter eight discusses EMDR therapy for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant women. Chapter nine describes the EMDR recent birth trauma protocol. The final chapter presents the breastfeeding and bonding EMDR protocol.
- Go to chapter: Summary Sheet: Medical Trauma EMDR Therapy to Treat the Sequelae of Somatic Illness and Medical Treatment
- Go to chapter: Medical Trauma: EMDR Therapy to Treat the Sequelae of Somatic Illness and Medical Treatment
Somatic illness is often life-threatening and even if not it can bring along many stressful life experiences for one self and relevant others. Somatic disorders are of course very physical in experience. Also, medical treatment with its intensive use of medication can add a special flavor to the formation of the memory nodes later to be addressed in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. EMDR has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of patients traumatized by somatic disorders or medical treatment. Examples are the treatment of survivors of life-threatening cardiac events, the treatment of cancer patients, and the treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome. The treatment of patients traumatized by somatic disorders or medical treatment provides some challenges that one would like to address in this scripted protocol. This scripted protocol is designed to improve the treatment of these patients in need of help.
- Go to article: A Brief Narrative Summary of Randomized Controlled Trials Investigating EMDR Treatment of Patients With Depression
A Brief Narrative Summary of Randomized Controlled Trials Investigating EMDR Treatment of Patients With Depression
Depression, one of the most common mental disorders, is characterized by enormous social costs and limited rates of treatment success, even though psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments currently contribute to an increase in the remission rate. In light of recent studies that have shown that traumas and adverse life experiences may represent risk factors for the onset of depression, the therapeutic approach of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been seen as potentially effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of the present brief narrative review is to summarize the current literature on the efficacy of EMDR in patients with depression, in particular by referring to randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) that examined depression as a primary outcome. The data examined are updated to March 2019 and count seven RCT studies covering the years from 2001 to 2019. They are heterogeneous by type of intervention and demographic characteristics of the sample. Although the selected studies are few and with different methodological critical issues, the findings reported by the different authors suggest in a preliminary way that EMDR can be a useful treatment for depression.
Since its inception in 1989, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has evolved from a simple desensitization technique to treat posttraumatic stress disorder to a comprehensive psychotherapy approach that treats a broad range of clinical problems in a variety of contexts and with diverse populations. This position paper is the result of a two-year project by the Council of Scholars' “What is EMDR?” workgroup that was tasked with the particular challenge of defining EMDR therapy, as innovations in the field continue to develop and the need for a consensus definition has become essential. In addition to proposing categories of EMDR therapy, that is, EMDR psychotherapy, EMDR treatment protocols, and EMDR-derived techniques, we identified core elements of EMDR therapy that can serve as a guideline to evaluate future innovations. Additionally, with concepts and procedures evolving over the years, some of the language needed revising to be consistent with current practices. The adoption of these three categories of treatment by the EMDR community would have broad-reaching implications that would generate more qualitative as well as quantitative studies in all categories. For training and clinical practice, it offers clinicians the opportunity to train with a focus on their particular treatment setting in addition to the foundational training that would be universal to all EMDR-trained clinicians. Finally, the interplay in the Council of Scholars between the “What is EMDR?” workgroup and the research, clinical practice, and training and accreditation workgroups will lead to further developments as these areas all inform one another.
- Go to article: EMDR Reprocessing of the Addiction Memory: Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and 1-Month Follow-Up
This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of alcohol dependency. EMDR was applied to reprocess the addiction memory (AM) in chronically dependent patients. The AM includes memories of preparatory behavior, drug effects (drug use), and loss of control (Wolffgramm, 2002). It is understood to involve extensive brain circuitry, drive part of conscious and unconscious craving, change environmental response at an organic level, and modify circuits that link to feelings of satisfaction, future planning, and hope. Thirty-four patients with chronic alcohol dependency were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus two sessions of EMDR (TAU+EMDR). The craving for alcohol was measured by the Obsessive–Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) pre-, post-, and 1 month after treatment. The TAU+EMDR group showed a significant reduction in craving posttreatment and 1 month after treatment, whereas TAU did not. Results indicate that EMDR might be a useful approach for the treatment of addiction memory and associated symptoms of craving.
- Go to article: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing as an Adjunctive Treatment of Unipolar Depression: A Controlled Study
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing as an Adjunctive Treatment of Unipolar Depression: A Controlled Study
Depression is a severe mental disorder that challenges mental health systems worldwide. About 30% of treated patients do not experience a full remission after treatment, and more than 75% of patients suffer from recurrent depressive episodes. Although psychotherapy and medication can improve remission rates, the success rates of current treatments are limited. In this nonrandomized controlled exploratory study, 21 patients with unipolar primary depression were treated with a mean of 44.5 sessions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) including an average 6.9 adjunctive sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). A control group (n = 21) was treated with an average of 47.1 sessions of CBT sessions alone. The main outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The treatment groups did not differ in their BDI-II scores before treatment, and both treatments resulted in significant improvement. There was an additional benefit for patients treated with adjunctive EMDR (p = .029). Also the number of remissions at posttreatment, as measured by a symptom level below a BDI-II score of 12, was significantly better in the adjunctive EMDR group, the group showing more remissions (n = 18) than the control group (n = 8; p < .001). This potential effect of EMDR in patients with primary depression should be examined further in larger randomized controlled studies.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing EMDR Therapy Scripted Protocols and Summary Sheets:Treating Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Mood-Related Conditions
This book offers eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (
EMDR) therapy practitioners and researchers a window into the treatment rooms of experts in the fields of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and spectrum disorders, and mood-related conditions. It is divided into three parts with 10 chapters that cover working with anxiety disorders, including specific phobia, panic disorder, and the use of a specific procedure in the treatment of anxiety disorder; obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, olfactory reference syndrome, and hoarding behaviors; and mood disorders, including bipolar disorder, major depression, and postpartum depression. To address the specific needs of their populations, authors were asked to include the types of questions relevant for history taking, helpful resources and explanations needed in the preparation phase, particular negative and positive cognitions that were frequent in the assessment phase and for cognitive interweaves, other concerns during phases 4 (desensitization) through 8 (reevaluation), a section on case conceptualization and treatment planning, and any pertinent research on their work. Consisting of past, present, and future templates, the scripts are conveniently presented in an easy-to-use, manual-style format that facilitates a reliable, consistent procedure. Summary sheets for each protocol support quick retrieval of essential issues and components for the clinician when putting together a treatment plan for the client. These scripted protocols and completed summary sheets can be inserted right into a client’s chart for easy documentation.