This chapter presents specific issues faced by older adults in response to adaptations to chronic illness and disability. Some individuals have congenital disabilities and others acquire a disability early in life and are able to adjust fairly easily, aging with their disability. On the other hand, some individuals acquire a disability later in life and may experience great difficulty making the adjustments to their condition. The chapter presents information on the age-related concerns of older adults, components and perceptions of aging, assessment issues associated with older adults, vocational interests, and death and dying perspectives. It also discusses the implications for service delivery in the context in which older adults are served along with laws and regulations that apply to the population. Aging and geriatric persons often utilize a variety of services from multiple entities (e.g., social, legal, medical, financial, and counseling).
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The prison system serves as an institution not only for punishment of crimes committed but as a facility for rehabilitation of offenders. The process of reentry or reintegration may be varied among ex-offenders owing to life circumstances and abilities and is rarely a linear process. Many adult ex-offenders have disabilities that may allow them to apply and qualify for vocational rehabilitation services such as psychiatric disorders, substance abuse and addiction problems, intellectual disabilities, chronic health issues, and dual diagnoses. This chapter presents evidence-based practices for assisting ex-offenders with disabilities from an interdisciplinary and a multiservice provision perspective. Information is presented on barriers to community reintegration including legal concerns, barriers to employment, employers’ hiring practices, and self-imposed barriers. The intent is to present the systematic ways in which ex-offenders with disabilities are unrecognized as vulnerable and marginalized populations that can benefit from an array of services.
This book brings to life the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF; World Health Organization, 2001) for rehabilitation counselors. The book presents contemporary information that can be used to educate, guide practice, and provide the foundation for emerging research related to the psychosocial aspects of disability and chronic disease. It provides a powerful and informative resource for students, practitioners, and scholars in developing and reinforcing rehabilitation counseling principles that guide rehabilitation counseling education, practice, and research. The book is organized into five major parts containing 30 chapters. Part I presents the historical perspectives on illness and disability. Part II offers insights into the personal impact of illness and disability on individuals by looking closely at several unique psychosocial life experiences. It discusses various theories of adaptation to disability, the unique experiences faced by women with disabilities, gender differences regarding sexuality, multicultural and family perspectives of disability, and quality of life (QOL) issues for those with disabilities. Part III addresses issues such as involvement, support, and coping of family members (parents, children, spouses, and partners) which includes family caregiving and counseling, to promote optimal medical, physical, mental, emotional, and psychological functioning of the person with a disability. Part IV reflects the growing need for diagnostic, treatment, and preventive interventions, and the coordination of important resources to help persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities achieve optimal levels of independent functioning. It delves on substance use disorders, trauma-related mental health problems among combat veterans, and assistive technology. The final part addresses several contemporary issues faced by persons with chronic illness and disabilities (CIDs) that are relevant to counselors and practice. It discusses newer challenges that these individuals face, including obesity, poor nutrition, poverty, suicide, threat of terrorism, and depression, all of which are on the rise in the United States.
Poverty and disability are interconnected and are cyclical in nature. That is, persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses are disproportionately represented among those living in poverty and poverty disproportionately affects individuals with disabilities. Socioeconomic status is the most powerful predictor of chronic disease, disability, and mortality. The intersection between poverty and disability and chronic illness is influenced by a host of factors including employment status, educational attainment, lack of insurance, lack of access to medical care, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Persons with disabilities living in poverty may have to contend with multiple risks associated with limited resources, high stress, neurobehavioral effects, and exposure to various traumas. This chapter examines how poverty, disability, and chronic illness influence one another, describes the impact of poverty, contributing factors that precipitate and result from living in poverty, and the relationship between poverty and disability, and discusses implications and strategies for counseling.