The first experiences of supportive and social units come, most often, from the family. This chapter discusses the impact of disability on family by examining the reactions of family members to disability, factors that influence adjustment to disability in the family, adjustment models, parenting reaction perspectives, effective family coping, the impact of disability based on the family role of the person with a disability, and cultural influence on family adaptation to disability. It is important to assess family needs and support services so that the family does not become overwhelmed or feel isolated in their endeavors to assist their loved one and to integrate into the larger community. This involves understanding numerous differences in family reactions and functioning based on the resilience of the family, who in the family has the disability, the extent of the disability, the resources available, and cultural beliefs and practices.
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The field of counseling is an exciting and challenging career choice. It is a profession that has a prolific history of enabling person-centered counseling approaches for individuals, couples, partners, and families, and facilitates therapeutic services for children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. This book offers an excellent resource for graduate-level coursework that relates to an orientation to the counseling profession, professional issues, and special topic seminars, as well as other counseling-related coursework. It provides both contemporary insight and practical strategies for working with the complexity of real-life issues related to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of diverse clients and their families. The book provides professionals with chapters organized into the 10 CACREP and CORE content areas that address the awareness, knowledge, and skills required to work with children, adolescents, individuals, groups, couples, families, and persons from diverse cultural backgrounds. The content areas are: professional counseling identity, ethical and practice management issues, case management and consultation issues, multicultural counseling awareness, counseling theories and techniques, career counseling and human growth, assessment and diagnosis, counseling couples, families, and groups, counseling specific populations, and contemporary issues in counseling.
This book deals with a number of issues and strategies for counseling people with disabilities. It allows counselors and other related health professionals to learn from the writings of 16 people with disabilities across North America. The book provides information on how other professional disciplines perceive and are trained to view disability. It discusses the medical and psychosocial aspects of caregiving in the country and highlights some of the most difficult decisions individuals and families may have to make in this process. The book is organized into four parts containing sixteen chapters. Part I explores disability from a sociological perspective. The topics covered are: the history of how people with disabilities have been viewed and treated in society; attitude formation, societal attitudes, and myths about disabilities; culturally different issues and attitudes toward disability; and attitudes toward disability by specific special interest and occupational groups. Part II focuses on the psychology of disability surrounding the individual and his or her family. The topics address: theories of adjustment to disability by the individual; family adaptation across cultures toward a loved one who is disabled; sexuality and disability; and the psychosocial world of the injured worker. Part III addresses pertinent topics concerning psychosocial issues of disability. The topics include: disability and quality of life over the life span; implications of social support and caregiving of loved ones with a disability; and thriving versus succumbing to disability: psychosocial factors and positive psychology. Part IV addresses counseling strategies and insights for working with persons with disabilities. The topics discuss: which counseling theories and techniques work best with different disability populations and why; social justice, oppression, and disability; counseling families in the community; ethical responsibilities in working with persons with disabilities and our duty to educate; and basic dos and don’ts in counseling persons with disabilities.
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The topic of ethics is vast and impossible to cover comprehensively in any single work. This chapter presents some of the relevant and controversial topics in this arena. It focuses on common ethical dilemmas, factors that influence counselor ethics, counselor competence, and current and debated ethical issues. Some ethical dilemmas seem inherent in the counseling process and are as likely to be encountered in the present day as they were in earlier generations. Others occur due to societal advancements and trends, new technologies, or catastrophic events or diseases that lead to increases in prejudice and discrimination. The chapter covers current and debated ethical issues related to AIDS/HIV and duty to warn self-injuring clients, biotechnology advances, wrongful birth and wrongful life actions, decisions related to choosing disability, ethics and private sector rehabilitation, online and Internet counseling, end-of-life counseling, and assisted suicide.
This chapter discusses the impact of disability on a family by examining the reactions of family members to disability, factors that influence adjustment to disability in the family, adjustment models, parenting reaction perspectives, effective family coping, the impact of disability based on the family role of the person with a disability, and the cultural influence on family adaptation to disability. Understanding the role of the family and how it functions to enhance or to detract from the lives of people with disability is imperative because this basic social unit can provide a lifetime of love, support, encouragement, and care. It is important to assess family needs and support services so that the family does not become overwhelmed or feel isolated in their endeavors to assist their loved one and to integrate into the larger community.
Quality of life is considered to be a vague, subjective, multidimensional concept that incorporates all life dimensions and experiences. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines quality of life as "a person or group’s perceived physical and mental health over time" (CDC, 2010; para 1). This chapter explores the concept of quality of life, the impact of disability at various life stages, and the impact of various types of disabilities on quality of life. The quality of life is a difficult construct to measure because it is impacted by numerous objective and subjective variables and individual preferences. For people with disabilities, additional factors related to their health conditions may challenge attaining optimum quality of life. In addition, developmental progression may both have an effect on, and be affected by, disability because roles, responsibilities, goals, and outlooks are affected by life stage.
The terms sexual abuse and sexual assault are frequently used interchangeably in the literature to indicate sexual acts with a person who does not give consent. When these acts are also accompanied by physical force, death threats, incapacitating substances, or kidnapping, the term aggravated sexual abuse is applied. Sexual abuse is commonplace, but the actual prevalence of sexual abuse is difficult to determine because there is no central agency responsible for the gathering and assimilation of these data. Abuse can be reported to a number of agencies that do not share information, such as government and legal entities, medical facilities, mental health services. Unresolved sexual abuse may result in somatic reactions, negative thoughts and beliefs about the self, negative emotions, destructive behaviors, and interpersonal problems. A number of additional issues may require therapeutic interventions if the sexual abuse was intrafamilial, including addressing the mother-victim relationship and the perpetrator-victim relationship.
Sexuality and disability is a topic that has been neglected for a long time by professionals. This chapter focuses on (a) sexuality and related components; (b) disability and intimate relationships; (c) disability type and related sexual issues; (d) sexual orientation, sexual functioning, procreation, and parenting; (e) sex education, sex therapy, and sexual surrogates; and (f) sexual abuse. Issues related to sex and sexuality for people with disabilities (PWDs) incorporate some important topics that can affect how PWDs view themselves and live their lives. This chapter discussed the social construction of gender identity and body image and the role that social construction plays in the sexual stigmatization and abuse of PWDs. Societal attitudes additionally play a role in self-esteem and body image for PWDs and affect their intimate partnering choices.
This book brings to life the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF; World Health Organization, 2001) for rehabilitation counselors. The book presents contemporary information that can be used to educate, guide practice, and provide the foundation for emerging research related to the psychosocial aspects of disability and chronic disease. It provides a powerful and informative resource for students, practitioners, and scholars in developing and reinforcing rehabilitation counseling principles that guide rehabilitation counseling education, practice, and research. The book is organized into five major parts containing 30 chapters. Part I presents the historical perspectives on illness and disability. Part II offers insights into the personal impact of illness and disability on individuals by looking closely at several unique psychosocial life experiences. It discusses various theories of adaptation to disability, the unique experiences faced by women with disabilities, gender differences regarding sexuality, multicultural and family perspectives of disability, and quality of life (QOL) issues for those with disabilities. Part III addresses issues such as involvement, support, and coping of family members (parents, children, spouses, and partners) which includes family caregiving and counseling, to promote optimal medical, physical, mental, emotional, and psychological functioning of the person with a disability. Part IV reflects the growing need for diagnostic, treatment, and preventive interventions, and the coordination of important resources to help persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities achieve optimal levels of independent functioning. It delves on substance use disorders, trauma-related mental health problems among combat veterans, and assistive technology. The final part addresses several contemporary issues faced by persons with chronic illness and disabilities (CIDs) that are relevant to counselors and practice. It discusses newer challenges that these individuals face, including obesity, poor nutrition, poverty, suicide, threat of terrorism, and depression, all of which are on the rise in the United States.