This book provides the foundations and training that social workers need to master cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). CBT is based on several principles namely cognitions affect behavior and emotion; certain experiences can evoke cognitions, explanation, and attributions about that situation; cognitions may be made aware, monitored, and altered; desired emotional and behavioral change can be achieved through cognitive change. CBT employs a number of distinct and unique therapeutic strategies in its practice. As the human services increasingly develop robust evidence regarding the effectiveness of various psychosocial treatments for various clinical disorders and life problems, it becomes increasingly incumbent upon individual practitioners to become proficient in, and to provide, as first choice treatments, these various forms of evidence-based practice. It is also increasingly evident that CBT and practice represents a strongly supported approach to social work education and practice. The book covers the most common disorders encountered when working with adults, children, families, and couples including: anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorder, sexual and physical abuse, substance misuse, grief and bereavement, and eating disorders. Clinical social workers have an opportunity to position themselves at the forefront of historic, philosophical change in 21st-century medicine. While studies using the most advanced medical technology show the impact of emotional suffering on physical disease, other studies using the same technology are demonstrating CBT’s effectiveness in relieving not just emotional suffering but physical suffering among medically ill patients.
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Over the years, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been applied to a variety of client populations in a range of treatment settings and to the range of clinical problems. This chapter provides a general overview of the cognitive behavior history, model, and techniques and their application to clinical social work practice. It begins with a brief history and description, provides a basic conceptual framework for the approach, highlights the empirical base of the model, and then discusses the use of cognitive, behavior, and emotive/affective interventions. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on several principles namely cognitions affect behavior and emotion; certain experiences can evoke cognitions, explanation, and attributions about that situation; cognitions may be made aware, monitored, and altered; desired emotional and behavioral change can be achieved through cognitive change. CBT employs a number of distinct and unique therapeutic strategies in its practice.
The treatment of the suicidal individual is perhaps the most weighty and difficult of any of the problems confronted by the clinical social worker. Some frequent comorbid pathology with suicidal behavior includes alcoholism, panic attacks, drug abuse, chronic schizophrenia, conduct disorder in children and adolescents, impulse control deficits, schizophrenia, and problem-solving deficits. Suicidal harmful behavior appears in all ages and characterizes clients in a large spectrum of life. There are four types of suicidal behavior namely rational suicider, psychotic suicider, hopeless suicider and impulsive or histrionic suicider. This chapter presents some primarily cognitive techniques for challenging suicidal automatic thoughts. Recent reports suggest that individuals suffering from alcohol or substance abuse are at an increased risk both for attempting, and for successfully completing, a suicidal act. The therapist must develop an armamentarium of cognitive techniques, and the skills to use these effectively in ways that are appropriate for each individual client.
The field of counseling is an exciting and challenging career choice. It is a profession that has a prolific history of enabling person-centered counseling approaches for individuals, couples, partners, and families, and facilitates therapeutic services for children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. This book offers an excellent resource for graduate-level coursework that relates to an orientation to the counseling profession, professional issues, and special topic seminars, as well as other counseling-related coursework. It provides both contemporary insight and practical strategies for working with the complexity of real-life issues related to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of diverse clients and their families. The book provides professionals with chapters organized into the 10 CACREP and CORE content areas that address the awareness, knowledge, and skills required to work with children, adolescents, individuals, groups, couples, families, and persons from diverse cultural backgrounds. The content areas are: professional counseling identity, ethical and practice management issues, case management and consultation issues, multicultural counseling awareness, counseling theories and techniques, career counseling and human growth, assessment and diagnosis, counseling couples, families, and groups, counseling specific populations, and contemporary issues in counseling.
This chapter provides a general overview of the cognitive behavioral history, model, and techniques and their application to counseling practice. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) originally evolved out of two traditions, the behavior therapy tradition and the psychodynamic tradition. Behavior therapy was one of the first major departures from the more traditional, psychodynamically oriented approaches to therapy. Through the use of Socratic questioning, CBT involves an ongoing assessment of the person and the problems throughout the therapy experience and is very sensitive to the idiosyncratic nature of an individual’s problems. Once cognitive, behavioral, and emotive patterns are identified for change, the CBT therapist begins to introduce a variety of focused techniques to facilitate this process. Behavioral interventions can be especially helpful in promoting change in individuals who have a harder time making elegant core belief changes through cognitive methods.
- Go to article: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Cognitive Effects of a Peer Mediation Intervention
The Peer Mediation with Young Children (PMYC) was investigated in computerized versus noncomputerized environments using process (e.g., mediation strategies) and performance variables (e.g., cognitive modifiability) as outcome measures. The sample consisted of 108 pupils drawn from fourth- (tutors) and first-grade (tutored) classes randomly assigned to experimental (n = 27) and control (n = 27) dyads. Dyads in each group were randomly assigned to either computerized or noncomputerized learning environments. Experimental tutors received training in the PMYC program whereas control tutors received general preparation for peer tutoring. Following the PMYC program, each dyad was assigned to a collaborative learning situation in which the older child taught his/her partner a problem solving task. All children were tested on a set of cognitive measures before and after the PMYC program. The findings showed that the experimental tutors used significantly higher levels of mediation strategies and achieved higher cognitive modifiability than did the control children in both learning environments. Children tutored in the computerized environment achieved higher cognitive modifiability than children tutored in the noncomputerized environment. The findings are discussed in light of Vygotsky and Feuerstein’s theories and recent research on peer-assisted learning.
- Go to article: Relationship Between Mother-Child Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) Strategies and Mothers’ Attachment Style and Mental Health
Relationship Between Mother-Child Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) Strategies and Mothers’ Attachment Style and Mental Health
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between mother-child mediated learning experience (MLE) strategies and mothers’ attachment and mental health. Fifty two Israeli mother-child dyads were videotaped at home in two interaction conditions: free play and structured. The interactions were analyzed using the Observation of Mediated Interaction (OMI). Mothers rated themselves on the Attachment Scale and the Mental Health Inventory. MLE strategies were found to be positively predicted by secure attachment and negatively by anxious attachment. In addition, MLE strategies were positively predicted by feelings of wellbeing. Gender differences are discussed. The findings support previous findings about affect-cognition relationships, and indicate the importance of perceiving the mediator from a holistic point of view. Mediation is perceived not only as a determining factor of affective processes, but also as being determined by them.
- Go to article: Another Step Forward for Cognitive Therapy: Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders
The focus of this article is on the effects of mediated learning experience (MLE) interactions on children’s cognitive modifiability. In this article, I discuss the MLE theory, and selected research findings demonstrating the impact of MLE strategies in facilita ting cognitive modifiability. Research findings derive from mother–child interactions, peer-mediation and cognitive education programs. Mediation for transcendence (expanding) was found consistently as the most powerful strategy predicting cognitive modifiability and distal factors in samples of children with learning difficulties directly predict cognitive modifiability. Findings of peer-mediation studies indicate that children in experimental groups participating in the Peer Mediation with Young Children program showed better mediational teaching style and higher cognitive modifiability than children in control groups. Application of dynamic assessment as a central evaluation method reveals that the contribution of the cognitive education program was not simply supporting the development of a particular skill practiced during the program; it also involved teaching children how to benefit from mediation in a different setting and consequently improve their cognitive performance across other domains.
- Go to article: Cognitive Modifiability, Emotional–Motivational Factors, and Behavioral Characteristics Among Gifted Versus Nongifted Children
Cognitive Modifiability, Emotional–Motivational Factors, and Behavioral Characteristics Among Gifted Versus Nongifted Children
This study was designed to investigate the differences in cognitive modifiability, emotional–motivational factors, cognitive behavioral characteristics during dynamic assessment (DA), and openness to mediation and level of mediation among gifted versus nongifted children. One hundred forty-five 3rd-grade children in 4 groups (gifted [G], n = 41; outstanding-high [OH], n = 31; outstanding-low [OL], n = 35; and typical [T], n = 38) were given a battery of emotional–motivational tests and two DA measures: analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery and Rey’s (1956)Complex Figure test. Several behavioral categories were rated during DA. The G and OH groups were found to be similar on variables of cognitive modifiability and behavioral characteristics, and both were higher than the OL and T groups. The OH group was consistently higher than the G group on emotional–motivational factors. Discriminant function analysis showed that all variables significantly differentiated the four groups. The OH group was similar to the G group on cognitive modifiability but higher on emotional–motivational and cognitive behavioral characteristics. The data raised questions about the conventional procedures of selection of gifted children for enrichment programs.