Many researchers undoubtedly consider the ideal nature of having qualitative data that enhance the understanding of quantitative data or having quantitative data that further develops qualitative data. Likewise, when conducting a literature review, researchers often look to qualitative data when designing a quantitative investigation or to quantitative research when designing a qualitative investigation. While there are instances when this process is deserving of two separate investigations, mixed methods researchers will often design a study that employs a framework that touts a major methodological emphasis and a secondary framework that enhances and supplements the main strand. This chapter describes the philosophical underpinnings of explanatory and exploratory research designs. It explains how to maximize the rigor of explanatory and exploratory research designs. The chapter recognizes which data analysis methods are suited to explanatory and exploratory research designs. It interprets how explanatory and exploratory research design traditions can enhance multicultural competency.
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This chapter distinguishes the basics of mixed methods research and describes the philosophical integration of convergent and embedded research design. It illustrates how to maximize the rigor of embedded and convergent research design and recognizes how mixed methods traditions can enhance multicultural competency. The chapter builds on this understanding by describing pertinent mixed methods information. It provides a progressive information building and scaffolding process. In other words, the chapter presents while new mixed methods traditions, there will also be a sequential construction of general and advanced mixed methods concepts, methods, and procedures. The chapter introduces to the philosophical, pragmatic, and contextual aspects to convergent and embedded mixed methods research design. In addition, it took some time to re-introduce to a number of general mixed methods considerations. It provides enough information to begin to initiate a convergent and/or embedded mixed methods research project.
The concept of qualitative research goes at least as far back as Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, and John Locke. Researchers may refer to their studies as emphasizing a sense of quantity or quality. Others could refer to their investigations as being objective or subjective in nature. While these perspectives are important, a central question that researchers ask themselves is, “What am I studying?” This chapter helps the reader to understand the Consensual Qualitative Research (
CQR) process and comprehends the paradigmatic hierarchy of CQR. In addition to the traditional CQR, the chapter highlights the two primary variations consensual qualitative research-modified ( CQR-M) and consensual qualitative research for case study ( CQR-C). All three of these approaches are developed to assist the researcher in meeting their individual project needs. CQR-Mis identified for use with small chucks of data from larger studies, while CQR-Cwas developed for case study research specific to psychotherapy.
This chapter emphasizes two different approaches to mixed methods research. The transformative mixed methods approach creates new social justice–oriented research by employing qualitative and quantitative methods within a single phase, sequential phases, or concurrently. The multiphase mixed methods tradition is specifically designed for large-scale investigations that employ separate and equally emphasized qualitative and quantitative methodological frameworks. The order of data collection and analysis can either be sequential or concurrent, and each phase builds on the previous thread culminating in a fuller understanding of the overall project objectives. The chapter comprehends the philosophical integration of transformative and multiphase research design. It recognizes how to maximize the rigor of transformative and multiphase design. The chapter defines the data analysis process for transformative and multiphase designs and explains how mixed methods traditions can enhance multicultural competency.
This chapter provides an introduction to social science research and ethical considerations. Early-, mid-, and late-career professionals entering the world of research will likely be surprised by the number of research traditions, methods, and procedures available to them. Because very few textbooks introduce a wide-ranging collection of research methodology, many helping professionals feel ill equipped to understand what approach they want to utilize and how to effectively execute the associated methods. To further confuse adult learners, much of the literature in the behavioral sciences fails to adequately match pragmatic aspects of a research tradition (methods, sampling procedures, trustworthiness procedures) with the overarching research philosophy (ontology, epistemology, theory). The chapter defines the scientist practitioner model and recognizes the philosophical integration of qualitative and quantitative research. It explains research rigor and recognizes the nuances of research identity. The chapter describes basic research ethics.