Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has long been recognized as one of the most difficult symptoms to manage during cancer treatment, and it remains one of the most common unrelieved symptoms following chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Fatigue accounts for substantial levels of disability and contributes greatly to the overall burden of illness, as it may disrupt physical, mental, and social functioning as well as psychosocial adjustment. Although standard care usually involves recommendations for exercise or medications, many patients cannot or do not exercise; medications are not especially effective and cause problematic side effects for many patients. Hypnosis is one potential alternative that seems promising in the treatment of CRF. Hypnotherapy is a safe, nonpharmacological treatment that has shown considerable promise as a method of addressing cancer-related symptoms, and research demonstrates that hypnosis can be integrated into treatment programs for cancer patients and survivors.
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Parkinson’s disease is a severe neurological disorder that results in the progressive diminishment of the physical and mental health of those affected. The disease attacks neurons located in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra of the brain. Damage to these brain structures, along with the subsequent decrease in dopamine availability, leads to the hallmark symptoms of the disease, which include rest tremor, rigidity, and slowed or difficult movement, also known as bradykinesia. Another common symptom, involuntary muscle movement, or dyskinesia, is brought about by the long-term usage of levodopa, which is the most commonly prescribed treatment for the disorder. Apart from these motor complications, Parkinson’s disease is associated with a number of severe psychological concerns as well. In fact, over 60” of patients with Parkinson’s disease either report or display neuropsychiatric symptoms. Common symptoms include anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and impulsiveness.
This chapter focuses on mindfulness as a psychological trait and presents a brief review of the evidence supporting the mindfulness-based and mindfulness-influenced therapies, which have emerged over the past 35 years. Mindfulness is a central element of third-wave cognitive therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). There is a substantial evidence base for the use of mindfulness in therapy for mood disorders, borderline personality, and even some evidence for chronic pain. Despite the fact that there is a sound theoretical basis for delivering a mindfulness-based intervention in a hypnotherapeutic context, there are no current empirical trials to demonstrate the outcome of such an approach. The chapter presents sample case study and hypnosis script to serve qualified clinicians as a template for implementing a combined mindfulness and hypnosis approach.
Hypnotic relaxation therapy (HRT) is a particular system or approach to hypnotherapy. It involves a careful case formulation and treatment planning that capitalizes on the evolving body of empirical evidence for hypnotic relaxation interventions and psychotherapy. It is both structured and individualized and considers that all information is processed at both the conscious and unconscious levels of awareness. It is a highly integrative therapy that may be directed toward the development of coping skills, symptom relief/ alteration, facilitating insight, or relapse prevention. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) was developed for ease of administration by the clinician, time efficiency, and relevance to clinical practice. From the perspective of HRT, the conscious and unconscious minds are conceptualized from a social-psychological perspective, specifically Cognitive-Experiential Theory. Rapport and a positive therapeutic relationship are essential to achieve an optimal response to HRT in the context of psychotherapy or medical procedures.
This book is an interdisciplinary resource on clinical hypnosis research and applications in psychology and medicine. It encompasses state-of-the-art scholarship and techniques for hypnotic treatments along with hypnosis transcripts and case examples for all major psychological disorders and medical conditions. This book addresses hypnotic theories such as socio-cognitive and neo-dissociation theories, neurophysiology of hypnosis, hypnotherapy screening, measurement of hypnotizability, professional issues, and ethics. Chapters present hypnotic inductions to treat 70 disorders including asthma, anxiety, depression, pain, sleep problems, phobias, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), menopausal hot flashes, Parkinson’s disease, palliative care, tinnitus, addictions, and a multitude other common complaints. The book examines the history and foundations of hypnosis, myths and misconceptions, patient screening, dealing with resistance, and precautions to the use of hypnosis. It also examines a variety of hypnotherapy systems ranging from hypnotic relaxation therapy to hypnoanalysis. For each application, the text includes relevant research, specific induction techniques, and an illustrative case example. Additionally, this book covers professional issues, certification, hypnosis in the hospital, and placebo effects.
Hot flashes are the most prevalent symptom associated with menopause and are characterized by sudden warmth, primarily in the face and chest, sweating, chills, anxiety, and irritability. Hot flashes can disrupt sleep and result in discomfort and distress, which can negatively affect quality of life. The onset of hot flashes coincides with a decrease in estrogen levels that occurs during the menopausal transition; therefore, hormone replacement therapy has been the most commonly used treatment for hot flashes. Menopause, the cessation of the menstrual cycle, typically occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 when the release of estrogen and progesterone declines dramatically. The transition from premenopausal to postmenopausal is around four years and begins with changes in the normal menstrual cycle, culminating in amenorrhea. Hypnotic relaxation therapy can be adapted to effectively treat hot flashes both the frequency and severity of the hot flashes.
Sexual self-image plays a crucial role in healthy sexual functioning. More clinical studies are needed to evaluate hypnosis as a treatment for the improvement of sexual self-image. The use of hypnosis to improve sexual self-image should only be conducted by trained clinicians who understand the complexities and vulnerabilities of patients presenting negative sexual self-schemas and sexual dysfunction. It is important for the trained clinician to be aware of both the physical and psychological manifestations of sexual dysfunction and for proper diagnosis to be made prior to treatment, particularly the need to assess for sexual trauma and abuse. Once a diagnosis is made, it is then crucial for a treatment plan to be established that develops trust and rapport between the clinician and the patient. Treatment plans should include suggestions that are appropriate for the patient as well as suggestions for relaxation, anxiety reduction, and self-acceptance.