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This article outlines current cognitive constructs of explicit and implicit memory and argues that the subjective experience of memory is a significant object of change in cognitive therapy. The integrative process view of memory constrains memory through the variables of context, attention, and the number of times an event is recalled. The article discusses implications for the practice of cognitive psychotherapy which are drawn from theory and research on memory. These ideas are then elaborated in the discussion of an actual therapy case.
These two studies investigated the relationship of psychological reactance to the eight developmental stages according to the theory of Erik Erikson. More reactant individuals were found to be less psychosocially healthy, less positive and more negative in developmental state attitudes, less trusting, more autonomous, possessing a greater sense of identity, and less intimate than less reactant individuals. Verbally reactant individuals were found to be more psychosocially healthy whereas behaviorally reactant individuals were found to be less psychosocially healthy. It appears that reactant individuals have elevated autonomy and identity over trust and intimacy. Reactance appears to derive from the earlier developmental stages more than the later stages.
This article describes the hypnotherapeutic treatment of pain. Pain is a multifaceted, complex phenomenon which can be treated successfully by hypnosis. In fact, hypnosis has been shown to be unusually well-suited to pain treatment because a successful outcome is correlated with individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility. Both general and specific considerations of hypnotherapeutic pain treatment are described. Examples of specific hypnotic routines for pain treatment are presented as well as a more extended case description.
The present study examines the effects of the overt presentation of a variety of rationales underlying symptom prescription directives in a brief therapy experiment with anxious college student undergraduates. Forty undergraduate volunteers received a directive to increase their anxiety under one of four rationale conditions: (a) no rationale, in which the directive was given without a rationale; (b) positive refraining, which stressed the positive characteristics of anxiety symptoms; (c) performance anxiety, which described the vicious cycle created by direct attempts to decrease anxiety; and (d) double-bind, in which students were told that the counselor expected them to change whether or not they followed the directive and why this was so. Results showed significant therapeutic gain across all four treatment conditions on outcome measures of anxiety, internal attributions for change and self-efficacy; however, there were no differential effects due to type of rationale on any measure.
- Go to article: Implicit Learning, Tacit Knowledge, and Implications for Stasis and Change in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Implicit Learning, Tacit Knowledge, and Implications for Stasis and Change in Cognitive Psychotherapy
With the evolution of cognitive psychotherapy, there has been an increasing focus on the nature and influence of cognitive structures or schemata. These structures are out of conscious awareness and therefore can be thought of as tacit in nature. As yet, however, there has been little written regarding the implications of the investigations in cognitive psychology of implicit learning and tacit memory for cognitive psychotherapy. This article describes the work of Arthur Reber and other cognitive psychologists on implicit learning and tacit memory and draws tentative implications for the practice of cognitive psychotherapy. Implicit learning processes have been described as robust in nature, holding evolutionary primacy over explicit learning processes, as dissociated from explicit learning, as involving different processes of learning, and as occurring through the tacit detection of covariation. Tacit knowledge precedes and is less available than explicit knowledge.
- Go to article: A Cognitive Reaction: Adlerian Psychology, Cognitive (Behavior) Therapy, and Constructivistic Psychotherapy: Three Approaches in Search of a Center
This book is an interdisciplinary resource on clinical hypnosis research and applications in psychology and medicine. It encompasses state-of-the-art scholarship and techniques for hypnotic treatments along with hypnosis transcripts and case examples for all major psychological disorders and medical conditions. This book addresses hypnotic theories such as socio-cognitive and neo-dissociation theories, neurophysiology of hypnosis, hypnotherapy screening, measurement of hypnotizability, professional issues, and ethics. Chapters present hypnotic inductions to treat 70 disorders including asthma, anxiety, depression, pain, sleep problems, phobias, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), menopausal hot flashes, Parkinson’s disease, palliative care, tinnitus, addictions, and a multitude other common complaints. The book examines the history and foundations of hypnosis, myths and misconceptions, patient screening, dealing with resistance, and precautions to the use of hypnosis. It also examines a variety of hypnotherapy systems ranging from hypnotic relaxation therapy to hypnoanalysis. For each application, the text includes relevant research, specific induction techniques, and an illustrative case example. Additionally, this book covers professional issues, certification, hypnosis in the hospital, and placebo effects.
Anger is a curious phenomenon and an ambiguous psychological state. While it is generally viewed as a negative emotion to be addressed in psychological therapy, it is likewise often seen as a positive emotion. Anger tends to be seen as, and often is, empowering, at least in the short run. It can often coerce and direct other people’s behavior, establish social dominance, and aid in acquiring additional resources. But in the long run, an excessive level of anger can lead to health problems, poorer relationships, and diminished occupational functioning. Psychological therapy has been shown to be effective in treating anger problems. There are few research studies specifically on the use of hypnosis in treating anger. However, anger reduction may occur when hypnosis is targeted toward reduction of anxiety and stress.