One of the more comprehensive and enduring theories of psychosocial development was created by Erik Erikson (Erikson, 1968). He developed a map of human psychosocial development that covered the crises and touch points humans experience from birth to death. This chapter provides brief descriptions of each stage of Erikson’s chronologically organized model. Erikson’s model of sequential development implies that incomplete resolution of one developmental crisis may hinder future developmental progress regardless of an individual’s chronological age. Thus, “arrested development” may lead to a variety of concerns, behavioral problems, or adverse events for students, regardless of their ages. Awareness of the role that psychosocial development can play in a student’s maturity level or his or her adherence to rules and expectations can help student affairs professionals recognize and respond to student issues. The chapter outlines the ways in which obstructed development may create challenges for students on campus.
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This book provides useful information that will allow school counselors to stretch themselves and grow their confidence as they integrate these expressive arts interventions into their work with students. The book opens with a chapter addressing the value of the expressive arts as a conduit to personal growth and development. Also addressed is the integration of the arts into the school counseling milieu. The six sections of the book focus on a separate form of the expressive modalities. Within each section, the book presents the interventions based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) model domains: academic, career, and personal/social. The modalities included are the visual arts, music, movement and dance, expressive writing/poetry, drama, and a final section incorporating other modes of creative expression. The book closes with a chart that presents the various types of concerns for which students typically need assistance (such as grief and loss, self-esteem, social skills, etc.) and the interventions that may be most effective in addressing these issues.
This chapter describes career counseling considerations for African American Men, Latino Men, and Asian American Men. Interpersonal and systemic discrimination are still prominent in society, leading to elevated social and health risks for African American males. Creative career interventions could be beneficial for African American males. Narrative therapy allows clients to tell their unique stories to counselors open to learning new contexts and ways of dealing with challenges and problems within the clients’ realm of possibilities. Counselors using career counseling strategies should remember the unique needs of the populations with which they are working. Feminist theory has been extremely useful in working with marginalized populations, and this orientation can be expanded by the use of relevant career assessments. Asian Americans encounter counselors who promote individualism and focus on the needs of the client without consideration for the impact on the family.
There are many different subgroups of “stay-at-home moms” and “stay-at-home dads”, and members of each of the various groups may face unique obstacles to employment. Although men”s career trajectories are expected to follow a specific path, women”s paths often show a great deal of variety. In some cases, a stay-at-home mother”s partner may prefer that she stay in her role as full-time, primary caregiver. The clash of values between traditional gender roles and economic necessity creates personal difficulties that can be frustrating for women trying to get back into the work world. When mothers are able to secure jobs once their children reach school age, they may still find it difficult to relinquish the caregiver role. As women”s career aspirations shift, their preparation for the return to work may require additional education, which can delay the return to work and create its own set of challenges for the family system.
This book offers chapters with case vignettes in which creative career interventions are applied. Each of these chapters provides a thorough exploration of the career-related challenges and needs of each unique group. The book provides an overview of the unique needs of several populations including high school and community college students; dual-career couples; stay-at-home mothers; working parents; midlife and older adults; caregivers; unwed and teen mothers; formerly incarcerated individuals; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals; veterans; culturally diverse men and women such as African American, Asian American and Latino persons; and other populations. Each population chapter opens with a case vignette in which a client’s story is presented for readers to consider. These cases highlight the diverse array of career and lifestyle-related concerns that clients may bring to counseling. The vignettes are revisited at the close of the chapter to illustrate potential ways of helping clients resolve their concerns. The book contains more than 50 innovative career interventions that are located at the end of the book. These interventions can help one to have greater insight into how creativity can be used when working with clients facing career changes and challenges.
This chapter discusses the phenomenological realities, as well as the developmental and systemic experiences, of both middle and older adult women. The period of middle adulthood includes the years between the 40th and the 65th birthday. Older adulthood is being used to describe the period from the 65th birthday onward. The chapter explores both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the interpersonal and intrapersonal experiences of both middle and older adult women. Social and gender role analysis is useful for women in middle to older adulthood as the self-expression generated through feminist theory technique encourages them to break down the cultural stereotypes and presumptive obligations by which they have enacted their lives. Empowerment and self-expression are crucial for middle-aged and older women, since societal pressures may push women to shame themselves for their older age.
Counseling has long been considered to be an art, as well as a science, of helping individuals grow and develop. This book provides counselors and counseling students with a broader awareness of the ways in which traditional theories can be supplemented with expressive arts interventions. It also provides a clear description of the ways in which multicultural considerations can be addressed via the integration of the expressive arts into practice. The book presents a collection of field-tested creative interventions contributed by practicing counselors and counselor educators. It includes 111 interventions for use with various clients and presenting issues, including more than 40 new expressive arts interventions. The book is organized into an introductory chapter and three sections. The introductory chapter gives an introduction to the use of expressive arts in counseling. The first section presents theories of counseling and expressive arts approaches such as Adlerian theory, solution-focused therapy, cognitive behavioral theory, choice theory, existential theory, feminist theory, Gestalt theory, and person-centered therapy, narrative approaches, trauma-informed counseling, family counseling, and integrative theory. The second section discusses emerging and special issues in expressive arts and counseling such as neuroscientific applications for expressive therapies and clinical supervision. The final section describes the additional clinical uses of the expressive arts such as adventure therapy, animal-assisted therapy, child-centered play therapy, mindfulness in counseling, and sandplay therapy.
The expressive arts have the power to help us transcend the mundane and to connect with parts of ourselves that traditional talk therapy may not so readily offer. Engagement in the expressive arts allows clients to explore their deepest and often hidden feelings, to use symbols to represent their inner feelings and conflicts, and to physically express their internal issues. Art takes many forms and various methods and media are used in its creation. Visual art, music, dance/movement, drama, and expressive writing are the primary expressive arts modalities used in counseling. The creative arts offer both the clinician and the client an opportunity to move beyond the expressive limits of talk therapy. Further, the arts can be successfully incorporated in any clinical setting, from schools to outpatient settings to residential treatment centers, and with clients of any age, from young children to older adults.
Many cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) goals and techniques are in alignment with an expressive arts perspective. In both CBT and the expressive arts, the common goal is for the client to achieve behavioral change. This chapter explains how the expressive arts can be integrated into CBT. There is strong empirical support for the use of CBT for a range of client concerns, which makes it a frequent choice for many clinicians. The successful practice of this form of therapy requires counselors to help clients intentionally identify and explore the faulty beliefs that they hold and actively work to change these. The expressive arts provide multiple methods of exploring clients’ connections between thoughts and action. The chapter proposes multiple examples of how CBT can be integrated with creative expression. Some of the expressive arts interventions proposed in the chapter include: (1) Catastrophe comic book; and (2) Acting out: paradoxical intervention.
Sandplay is a therapeutic intervention that allows individuals to articulate their current concerns or problems in a symbolic, nonverbal manner. This form of therapy relies on a client’s intuitive knowledge and the counselor’s belief that clients enter the counseling process already possessing the solution to their concerns although they may not yet be aware of this. Both adults and children can benefit from this adjunctive therapy, which calls on the active imagination to express with symbols what is difficult to express in words. Sandplay techniques allow clients to explore issues at their own speed and without having to use direct verbal exploration of the concern. Sandtray is an excellent medium for introducing the expressive arts into a counseling session in an easy and nonthreatening manner. Sandtray invites both nondirective and directive work with clients and provides a lasting image of their inner worlds.
This book offers an in-depth look at the ways in which contemporary undergraduate students may differ from past generations, as well as noting how some things never change, such as needs related to finding social support, romantic intimacy, and academic achievement. It first provides a brief overview of the various developmental transformations that are taking place within the many levels of cognitive, affective, and physiological development of emerging adults. The book then considers the typical counseling concerns that counselors can expect to meet across the academic year. Next, it addresses the social concerns of students as they seek to find the best way to fit in on campus. It addresses the growing diversity of college campuses as well as provides counselors with guidance on helping their clients connect into the campus community. Then, the book moves into ways to assist clients who are facing unexpected hurdles, including grief over the loss of significant others; difficulties with self-esteem and self-image presented by the competitive culture of college-age females; and navigational challenges in romantic relationships that may be more intense and sexually tinged than prior high school relationships had been. Specific mental health disorders that frequently appear in the college-age population are also addressed in the book. The book provides guidelines for treatment and intervention that are relevant to college counselors working within a brief counseling framework. Topics include eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, self-injury, suicidal students, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulse-control disorders. Finally, the book provides readers with ideas for promoting student well-being beyond the counseling office.
College students must make sexual choices; more clearly define their sexual identity; and consistently consider sexual health in order to maintain a strong and positive holistic sense of self. College counselors should be able to provide accurate information on a wide variety of sexual issues as well as a safe environment for students to determine what is best. Educating students about everything from vocabulary to communicating with partners about topics such as sexual concerns and safe sexual practices are the areas in which clients will most likely need assistance. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) college students have additional factors, their sexual identity and orientation that can greatly influence their college experiences. It is vital that college counseling centers provide relevant, accessible information and materials, as well as helpful referrals, for specialized information regarding safe sex, contraception, and sexual health.
Universities are becoming increasingly appreciative of the importance of students’ college experiences outside of the classroom. Increased campus involvement meets numerous student needs that are uncovered during counseling process. Social involvement is directly related to self-esteem among college students. Having friends boosts self-esteem and helps a student feel a sense of belonging. Students do not need to interact with large groups to reap benefits of social interaction; a small group of close friends is preferable to most students than a large group of more distant friends. Feelings of low self-esteem may be linked to a variety of causes, including social anxiety, feeling out of place, identity confusion, or perceived discrimination. Because it may be difficult to determine whether a lack of social activity is causing low self-esteem or vice versa, counselors are better served by both encouraging social involvement and confronting issues related to self-esteem in therapy sessions.
The transition from secondary school to college is marked with the significant and empowering rite of passage, high school graduation. This chapter presents an overview of college student development to provide counselors with a broad perspective on how the counseling center traffic might appear based on student classification and season. While each group of students will bring in issues with similar themes in counseling, their depth and engagement with the topic may be quite different based on client age. In general, counselors will notice an increasing maturity that grows with each year of college experience. This developing cognitive and emotional maturity significantly influences the atmosphere in the counseling office and the work that will be accomplished. The transition from adolescent to adult is a fascinating period and college counselors are in a prime position to witness and positively affect this powerful transformation.
Understanding a student’s ethnic identity process coupled with the student’s sexual identity and psychosocial identity can provide a much more useful and informative portrait of his or her circumstances than merely knowing the student as a “19-year-old sophomore”. This book was developed with both the student affairs professional and the student affairs graduate student in mind. After a brief introduction, it discusses various human development theories such as Schlossberg’s transition theory, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, Perry’s theory of moral development, and Kolb’s theory of experiential learning as well as personality types based on the Myers–Briggs type indicator. In the subsequent section of the book, the focus is on identity development in college students, with chapters covering Chickering’s Theory and the seven vectors of development, Black and biracial identity development theories, White identity development, and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity development as well as disability and identity development. and career development theories. The final section of the book describes the factors that impact the selection of careers with chapters discussing the Holland’s theory of career development and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, among other issues. Theory-based chapters open with a vignette in which the reader is presented with specific details of a case study for consideration. At the end of the chapter, the case is revisited and considered using a theoretical framework. Each case vignette provides the reader with immersion into a diverse perspective, and the chapter authors provide a clear discussion of their conceptualization of the student.
This book incorporates an inclusive representation of women and girls across ages and cultures by examining the intersection of their identities and integrating experiences of women and girls around the world. The overarching themes of the book include an examination of the contextual elements that affect the female experience and a focus on prevention and intervention strategies to support the empowerment of women and girls throughout their life spans. The first section of the book provides a foundation for the book and offers a context for understanding gender socialization and the female experience. This section includes chapters introducing empowerment feminist therapy, gender socialization, intersectionality, and relational-cultural theory. The second section offers detailed information on developmental issues and counseling interventions for women and girls throughout their life spans. Chapters focusing on gender identity development, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and middle and older adulthood are included in this section. The third section provides an in-depth look at specific issues affecting women and girls and includes relevant background information and practical application for counselors. In this concluding section, readers will learn about violence against women and girls, educational and work environments, females and their bodies, and engaging men as allies. Each chapter includes helpful resources to further educate yourself and others, as well as practical suggestions for advocacy efforts that can help create social change. Prevention and empowerment are key themes and foci of the book, and counseling implications and interventions are offered for each area of concentration.
This chapter briefly examines the history of the student affairs profession, specific issues students face when adjusting to college, and the role of student affairs professionals in providing support to students. It is essential that those who work in higher education institutions today possess a comprehensive understanding of the range of challenges that their students face. Student affairs professionals carry the responsibility of creating an atmosphere and environment that promotes student development both personally and professionally outside the classroom. The chapter discusses the importance of using theories to assist students. There are a number of different theories that are commonly used by student affairs professionals. The use of theories as a framework can provide student affairs professionals a way to communicate across departments, and beyond the “silos”, to ensure that programs are addressing the emotional, social, and cognitive needs of the diverse students who are pursuing their education on campus.