Understanding a student’s ethnic identity process coupled with the student’s sexual identity and psychosocial identity can provide a much more useful and informative portrait of his or her circumstances than merely knowing the student as a “19-year-old sophomore”. This book was developed with both the student affairs professional and the student affairs graduate student in mind. After a brief introduction, it discusses various human development theories such as Schlossberg’s transition theory, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, Perry’s theory of moral development, and Kolb’s theory of experiential learning as well as personality types based on the Myers–Briggs type indicator. In the subsequent section of the book, the focus is on identity development in college students, with chapters covering Chickering’s Theory and the seven vectors of development, Black and biracial identity development theories, White identity development, and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity development as well as disability and identity development. and career development theories. The final section of the book describes the factors that impact the selection of careers with chapters discussing the Holland’s theory of career development and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, among other issues. Theory-based chapters open with a vignette in which the reader is presented with specific details of a case study for consideration. At the end of the chapter, the case is revisited and considered using a theoretical framework. Each case vignette provides the reader with immersion into a diverse perspective, and the chapter authors provide a clear discussion of their conceptualization of the student.
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One of the more comprehensive and enduring theories of psychosocial development was created by Erik Erikson (Erikson, 1968). He developed a map of human psychosocial development that covered the crises and touch points humans experience from birth to death. This chapter provides brief descriptions of each stage of Erikson’s chronologically organized model. Erikson’s model of sequential development implies that incomplete resolution of one developmental crisis may hinder future developmental progress regardless of an individual’s chronological age. Thus, “arrested development” may lead to a variety of concerns, behavioral problems, or adverse events for students, regardless of their ages. Awareness of the role that psychosocial development can play in a student’s maturity level or his or her adherence to rules and expectations can help student affairs professionals recognize and respond to student issues. The chapter outlines the ways in which obstructed development may create challenges for students on campus.
This chapter discusses the phenomenological realities, as well as the developmental and systemic experiences, of both middle and older adult women. The period of middle adulthood includes the years between the 40th and the 65th birthday. Older adulthood is being used to describe the period from the 65th birthday onward. The chapter explores both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the interpersonal and intrapersonal experiences of both middle and older adult women. Social and gender role analysis is useful for women in middle to older adulthood as the self-expression generated through feminist theory technique encourages them to break down the cultural stereotypes and presumptive obligations by which they have enacted their lives. Empowerment and self-expression are crucial for middle-aged and older women, since societal pressures may push women to shame themselves for their older age.
This book incorporates an inclusive representation of women and girls across ages and cultures by examining the intersection of their identities and integrating experiences of women and girls around the world. The overarching themes of the book include an examination of the contextual elements that affect the female experience and a focus on prevention and intervention strategies to support the empowerment of women and girls throughout their life spans. The first section of the book provides a foundation for the book and offers a context for understanding gender socialization and the female experience. This section includes chapters introducing empowerment feminist therapy, gender socialization, intersectionality, and relational-cultural theory. The second section offers detailed information on developmental issues and counseling interventions for women and girls throughout their life spans. Chapters focusing on gender identity development, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and middle and older adulthood are included in this section. The third section provides an in-depth look at specific issues affecting women and girls and includes relevant background information and practical application for counselors. In this concluding section, readers will learn about violence against women and girls, educational and work environments, females and their bodies, and engaging men as allies. Each chapter includes helpful resources to further educate yourself and others, as well as practical suggestions for advocacy efforts that can help create social change. Prevention and empowerment are key themes and foci of the book, and counseling implications and interventions are offered for each area of concentration.
This book provides useful information that will allow school counselors to stretch themselves and grow their confidence as they integrate these expressive arts interventions into their work with students. The book opens with a chapter addressing the value of the expressive arts as a conduit to personal growth and development. Also addressed is the integration of the arts into the school counseling milieu. The six sections of the book focus on a separate form of the expressive modalities. Within each section, the book presents the interventions based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) model domains: academic, career, and personal/social. The modalities included are the visual arts, music, movement and dance, expressive writing/poetry, drama, and a final section incorporating other modes of creative expression. The book closes with a chart that presents the various types of concerns for which students typically need assistance (such as grief and loss, self-esteem, social skills, etc.) and the interventions that may be most effective in addressing these issues.
Counseling has long been considered to be an art, as well as a science, of helping individuals grow and develop. This book provides counselors and counseling students with a broader awareness of the ways in which traditional theories can be supplemented with expressive arts interventions. It also provides a clear description of the ways in which multicultural considerations can be addressed via the integration of the expressive arts into practice. The book presents a collection of field-tested creative interventions contributed by practicing counselors and counselor educators. It includes 111 interventions for use with various clients and presenting issues, including more than 40 new expressive arts interventions. The book is organized into an introductory chapter and three sections. The introductory chapter gives an introduction to the use of expressive arts in counseling. The first section presents theories of counseling and expressive arts approaches such as Adlerian theory, solution-focused therapy, cognitive behavioral theory, choice theory, existential theory, feminist theory, Gestalt theory, and person-centered therapy, narrative approaches, trauma-informed counseling, family counseling, and integrative theory. The second section discusses emerging and special issues in expressive arts and counseling such as neuroscientific applications for expressive therapies and clinical supervision. The final section describes the additional clinical uses of the expressive arts such as adventure therapy, animal-assisted therapy, child-centered play therapy, mindfulness in counseling, and sandplay therapy.
The expressive arts have the power to help us transcend the mundane and to connect with parts of ourselves that traditional talk therapy may not so readily offer. Engagement in the expressive arts allows clients to explore their deepest and often hidden feelings, to use symbols to represent their inner feelings and conflicts, and to physically express their internal issues. Art takes many forms and various methods and media are used in its creation. Visual art, music, dance/movement, drama, and expressive writing are the primary expressive arts modalities used in counseling. The creative arts offer both the clinician and the client an opportunity to move beyond the expressive limits of talk therapy. Further, the arts can be successfully incorporated in any clinical setting, from schools to outpatient settings to residential treatment centers, and with clients of any age, from young children to older adults.
Universities are becoming increasingly appreciative of the importance of students’ college experiences outside of the classroom. Increased campus involvement meets numerous student needs that are uncovered during counseling process. Social involvement is directly related to self-esteem among college students. Having friends boosts self-esteem and helps a student feel a sense of belonging. Students do not need to interact with large groups to reap benefits of social interaction; a small group of close friends is preferable to most students than a large group of more distant friends. Feelings of low self-esteem may be linked to a variety of causes, including social anxiety, feeling out of place, identity confusion, or perceived discrimination. Because it may be difficult to determine whether a lack of social activity is causing low self-esteem or vice versa, counselors are better served by both encouraging social involvement and confronting issues related to self-esteem in therapy sessions.
This book offers an in-depth look at the ways in which contemporary undergraduate students may differ from past generations, as well as noting how some things never change, such as needs related to finding social support, romantic intimacy, and academic achievement. It first provides a brief overview of the various developmental transformations that are taking place within the many levels of cognitive, affective, and physiological development of emerging adults. The book then considers the typical counseling concerns that counselors can expect to meet across the academic year. Next, it addresses the social concerns of students as they seek to find the best way to fit in on campus. It addresses the growing diversity of college campuses as well as provides counselors with guidance on helping their clients connect into the campus community. Then, the book moves into ways to assist clients who are facing unexpected hurdles, including grief over the loss of significant others; difficulties with self-esteem and self-image presented by the competitive culture of college-age females; and navigational challenges in romantic relationships that may be more intense and sexually tinged than prior high school relationships had been. Specific mental health disorders that frequently appear in the college-age population are also addressed in the book. The book provides guidelines for treatment and intervention that are relevant to college counselors working within a brief counseling framework. Topics include eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, self-injury, suicidal students, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulse-control disorders. Finally, the book provides readers with ideas for promoting student well-being beyond the counseling office.
College students must make sexual choices; more clearly define their sexual identity; and consistently consider sexual health in order to maintain a strong and positive holistic sense of self. College counselors should be able to provide accurate information on a wide variety of sexual issues as well as a safe environment for students to determine what is best. Educating students about everything from vocabulary to communicating with partners about topics such as sexual concerns and safe sexual practices are the areas in which clients will most likely need assistance. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) college students have additional factors, their sexual identity and orientation that can greatly influence their college experiences. It is vital that college counseling centers provide relevant, accessible information and materials, as well as helpful referrals, for specialized information regarding safe sex, contraception, and sexual health.