This book provides the foundations and training that social workers need to master cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). CBT is based on several principles namely cognitions affect behavior and emotion; certain experiences can evoke cognitions, explanation, and attributions about that situation; cognitions may be made aware, monitored, and altered; desired emotional and behavioral change can be achieved through cognitive change. CBT employs a number of distinct and unique therapeutic strategies in its practice. As the human services increasingly develop robust evidence regarding the effectiveness of various psychosocial treatments for various clinical disorders and life problems, it becomes increasingly incumbent upon individual practitioners to become proficient in, and to provide, as first choice treatments, these various forms of evidence-based practice. It is also increasingly evident that CBT and practice represents a strongly supported approach to social work education and practice. The book covers the most common disorders encountered when working with adults, children, families, and couples including: anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorder, sexual and physical abuse, substance misuse, grief and bereavement, and eating disorders. Clinical social workers have an opportunity to position themselves at the forefront of historic, philosophical change in 21st-century medicine. While studies using the most advanced medical technology show the impact of emotional suffering on physical disease, other studies using the same technology are demonstrating CBT’s effectiveness in relieving not just emotional suffering but physical suffering among medically ill patients.
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Over the years, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been applied to a variety of client populations in a range of treatment settings and to the range of clinical problems. This chapter provides a general overview of the cognitive behavior history, model, and techniques and their application to clinical social work practice. It begins with a brief history and description, provides a basic conceptual framework for the approach, highlights the empirical base of the model, and then discusses the use of cognitive, behavior, and emotive/affective interventions. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on several principles namely cognitions affect behavior and emotion; certain experiences can evoke cognitions, explanation, and attributions about that situation; cognitions may be made aware, monitored, and altered; desired emotional and behavioral change can be achieved through cognitive change. CBT employs a number of distinct and unique therapeutic strategies in its practice.
The treatment of the suicidal individual is perhaps the most weighty and difficult of any of the problems confronted by the clinical social worker. Some frequent comorbid pathology with suicidal behavior includes alcoholism, panic attacks, drug abuse, chronic schizophrenia, conduct disorder in children and adolescents, impulse control deficits, schizophrenia, and problem-solving deficits. Suicidal harmful behavior appears in all ages and characterizes clients in a large spectrum of life. There are four types of suicidal behavior namely rational suicider, psychotic suicider, hopeless suicider and impulsive or histrionic suicider. This chapter presents some primarily cognitive techniques for challenging suicidal automatic thoughts. Recent reports suggest that individuals suffering from alcohol or substance abuse are at an increased risk both for attempting, and for successfully completing, a suicidal act. The therapist must develop an armamentarium of cognitive techniques, and the skills to use these effectively in ways that are appropriate for each individual client.
The field of counseling is an exciting and challenging career choice. It is a profession that has a prolific history of enabling person-centered counseling approaches for individuals, couples, partners, and families, and facilitates therapeutic services for children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. This book offers an excellent resource for graduate-level coursework that relates to an orientation to the counseling profession, professional issues, and special topic seminars, as well as other counseling-related coursework. It provides both contemporary insight and practical strategies for working with the complexity of real-life issues related to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of diverse clients and their families. The book provides professionals with chapters organized into the 10 CACREP and CORE content areas that address the awareness, knowledge, and skills required to work with children, adolescents, individuals, groups, couples, families, and persons from diverse cultural backgrounds. The content areas are: professional counseling identity, ethical and practice management issues, case management and consultation issues, multicultural counseling awareness, counseling theories and techniques, career counseling and human growth, assessment and diagnosis, counseling couples, families, and groups, counseling specific populations, and contemporary issues in counseling.
This chapter provides a general overview of the cognitive behavioral history, model, and techniques and their application to counseling practice. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) originally evolved out of two traditions, the behavior therapy tradition and the psychodynamic tradition. Behavior therapy was one of the first major departures from the more traditional, psychodynamically oriented approaches to therapy. Through the use of Socratic questioning, CBT involves an ongoing assessment of the person and the problems throughout the therapy experience and is very sensitive to the idiosyncratic nature of an individual’s problems. Once cognitive, behavioral, and emotive patterns are identified for change, the CBT therapist begins to introduce a variety of focused techniques to facilitate this process. Behavioral interventions can be especially helpful in promoting change in individuals who have a harder time making elegant core belief changes through cognitive methods.
- Go to article: Another Step Forward for Cognitive Therapy: Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders
- Go to article: Stability and Change of Sociotropy and Autonomy Subscales in Cognitive Therapy of Depression
Sociotropy and autonomy have been demonstrated to be a diathesis for depression as well as predictors of treatment outcome. There are few studies, however, that have investigated whether these vulnerability factors change with cognitive therapy (CT) and are associated with outcome in CT. Also, it appears that the autonomy construct may have both positive and negative content and it is important to examine these two aspects of autonomy in treatment. In this study, depressed outpatients (N = 149) were followed from intake to the 12th session of CT. The treatment outcome variables included depression (Beck Depression Inventory), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and sociotropy and autonomy (Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale [SAS]). Using a repeated measures analysis, depression symptoms and hopelessness decreased significantly over time. Both subscales of sociotropy, preference for affiliation and fear of criticism and rejection, were positively associated with depression at intake, and decreased significantly over time in those who responded to treatment. However, independent goal attainment, one subscale of autonomy, increased significantly over sessions and was associated with treatment response. The second subscale of autonomy, sensitivity to others’ control, demonstrated no change. The results suggest that independent goal attainment may be an indicator of psychological health. Implications for future research using the SAS and its subscales in treatment and vulnerability research are described.
- Go to article: Individual Psychology and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Cognitive Therapy Perspective
Adler’s Individual Psychology (IP) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (BT) have many common precepts and suppositions. This paper delineates many of these commonalities and suggests areas in which the therapists may learn from each other.
- Go to article: Response to Ellis’ Discussion of “Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy”
Response to Ellis’ Discussion of “Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy”
These authors appreciate Ellis’ clarification that he encourages REBT therapists to use many of the same principles and methods used by CT therapists. His assertions that many of these elements are done more frequently or thoroughly in REBT than in CT are best evaluated by objective observers via empirical analysis of therapy transcripts, session videotapes, and treatment manuals. Such research would have particular value if it linked therapy methods with treatment outcome and relapse prevention for particular problems. In this regard, Ellis’ recommendation that REBT become more empirical is welcome. Also, these authors clarify the distinction they make between the terms philosophical and philosophically-based; empirically responsive and empirically-based. Finally, the authors applaud Ellis’ major contributions to the field.