The Butterfly Hug was originated and developed by Lucina Artigas during her work performed with the survivors of Hurricane Pauline in Acapulco, Mexico, 1997. For the origination and development of this method, Lucina Artigas was honored in 2000 with the Creative Innovation Award by the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) International Association. By 2009, The Butterfly Hug had become standard practice for clinicians in the field while working with survivors of man-made and natural catastrophes. The “Butterfly Hug” provides a way to self-administer dual attention stimulation (DAS) for an individual or for group work. This chapter explains many uses for the Butterfly Hug. During the EMDR Standard Protocol, some clinicians have also used it with adults and children to facilitate primary processing of a fundamental traumatic memory or memories. Use of the Butterfly Hug in session with the therapist can be a self-soothing experience for many trauma-therapy clients.
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- Go to chapter: EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol© Adapted for Adolescents (14–17 Years) and Adults Living With Ongoing Traumatic Stress
EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol© Adapted for Adolescents (14–17 Years) and Adults Living With Ongoing Traumatic Stress
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing-integrative group treatment protocol (EMDR-IGTP) combines the Standard EMDR Protocols and Procedures, including the some phases, with a group therapy model and an art therapy format, and uses the Butterfly Hug as a form of self-administered bilateral stimulation. For Jarero and Uribe, acute trauma situations are related to a time frame, and to a posttrauma safety period. They hypothesized that the continuum of stressful events with similar emotions, somatic, sensory, and cognitive information does not give the state-dependent traumatic memory sufficient time to consolidate into an integrated whole. Short posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Rating Interview (SPRINT) performs similarly to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the assessment of PTSD symptom clusters and total scores, and it can be used as a diagnostic instrument. Intensive administration of the EMDR-IGTP can be a valuable support for cancer patients with PTSD symptoms related to their diagnoses and treatment.
- Go to article: The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Adults During Ongoing Geopolitical Crisis
The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Adults During Ongoing Geopolitical Crisis
The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) has been used in its original format or with adaptations to meet the circumstances in numerous settings around the world for thousands of disaster survivors after natural or man-made incidents. In this study, the EMDR-IGTP was applied during three consecutive days to a group of 20 adults during ongoing geopolitical crisis in a Central American country in 2009. Results in this uncontrolled study showed significant decreases in scores on the Subjective Unit of Disturbance Scale and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Changes on the IES were maintained at 14 weeks follow-up even though participants were still exposed to ongoing crisis. Controlled research is recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of this intervention.
- Go to article: The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Child Victims of a Mass Disaster
The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment protocol (EMDR-IGTP) has been used in different parts of the world since 1998 with both adults and children after natural or man-made disasters. This protocol combines the eight standard EMDR treatment phases with a group therapy model, thus providing more extensive reach than the individual application of EMDR. In this study the EMDR-IGTP was used with 16 bereaved children after a human provoked disaster in the Mexican State of Coahuila in 2006. Results showed a significant decrease in scores on the Child’s Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale that was maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although controlled research is needed to establish the efficacy of this intervention, preliminary results suggest that EMDR-IGTP may be an effective means of providing treatment to large groups of people impacted by large-scale critical incidents (e.g., human-provoked disasters, terrorism, natural disasters).
Experiencing cancer is a peculiar stressor within the infrastructure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because this debilitating disease involves ongoing stressors and is both acute and potentially chronic. The experience can include a wide range of associated adverse events, such as tumor detection, diagnosis, severity of disease, and prognosis; aggressive treatment; disfigurement and bodily dysfunction; side effects of treatment; impaired physical, social, and occupational functioning; and sometimes, recurrence and diagnosis of terminal illness. This article provides a detailed description of the clinical application of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) Adapted for Adolescents and Adults Living with Ongoing Traumatic Stress for the patients with cancer. This protocol administers the eight phases of EMDR individual treatment to a group of patients using an art therapy format (i.e., drawings) and the butterfly hug (a self-administered bilateral stimulation method to process traumatic material). A previous study (Jarero et al., 2015) showed that after 6 sessions of EMDR-IGTP, there was a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. Effects were maintained at 90-day follow-up. In this article, we discuss how this protocol can be used to effectively provide intensive EMDR treatment to large groups of patients, and we provide detailed instructions for its provision to address one of the major psychological dimensions of cancer: the ongoing traumatic stress responses experienced by patients with cancer. A clinical example illustrates the treatment process.
Studies have evaluated the usefulness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) following disaster events finding that this approach could be effective in significantly reducing post-traumatic symptoms. EMDR has been reported as effective in the treatment of children following a hurricane in Hawaii. Group therapy is a well-proven form of treatment for traumatized children and adolescents. The EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) was developed by members of AMAMECRISIS when they were overwhelmed by the extensive need for mental health services after Hurricane Pauline ravaged the western coast of Mexico in 1997. This protocol combines the Standard EMDR Treatment Phases 1 through 8. Designed initially for work with children, the EMDR-IGTP has also been found suitable for group work with adults. The protocol is structured within a play therapy format and has been used with disaster victims ages 7 to 50 +.
- Go to article: The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Disaster Mental Health Continuum of Care Context
The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Disaster Mental Health Continuum of Care Context
This randomized, controlled group field study was conducted subsequent to a 7.2 earthquake in North Baja California, Mexico. Treatment was provided according to continuum of care principles. Crisis management debriefing was provided to 53 individuals. After this, the 18 individuals who had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale (IES) were then provided with the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI), a single-session modified EMDR protocol for the treatment of recent trauma. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: immediate treatment group and waitlist/delayed treatment group. There was no improvement in the waitlist/delayed treatment group, and scores of the immediate treatment group participants were significantly improved, compared with waitlist/delayed treatment group paticipants. One session of EMDR-PRECI produced significant improvement on symptoms of posttraumatic stress for both the immediate-treatment and waitlist/delayed treatment groups, with results maintained at 12-week follow-up, even though frightening aftershocks continued to occur frequently. This study provides preliminary evidence in support of the protocol’s efficacy in a disaster mental health continuum of care context. More controlled research is recommended to evaluate further the efficacy of this intervention.
- Go to article: EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context
EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context
This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI) in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the explosion in an explosives manufacturing factory north of Mexico City that killed 7 employees. The EMDR-PRECI was administered on 2 consecutive days to 25 survivors who had posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the critical incident. Participants’ mean score on the Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT) was 22, well above the clinical cutoff of 14. They were randomly assigned to immediate and waitlist/delayed treatment conditions and therapy was provided within 15 days of the explosion. Results showed significant main effects for the condition factor, F(1, 80) = 67.04, p < .000. SPRINT scores were significantly different across time showing the effects of the EMDR therapy through time, F(3, 80) = 150.69, p < .000. There was also a significant interaction effect, condition by time, F(2, 80) = 55.45, p < .001. There were significant differences between the two treatment conditions at Time 2 (post-immediate treatment vs. post-waitlist/delayed), t(11) = −10.08, p < .000. Treatment effects were maintained at 90-day follow-up. Results also showed an overall subjective improvement in the participants. This randomized controlled trial provides evidence for the efficacy of EMDR-PRECI in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms after a technological disaster.
- Go to article: EMDR Therapy Humanitarian Trauma Recovery Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean
This article presents an overview of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Humanitarian Trauma Recovery Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean and provides the reader with clinical stories from the front lines. During our many years working in the field, we have observed that psychological trauma is a challenging consequence of the multifaceted situations confronting individuals and communities after disasters. In this article, we describe the EMDR humanitarian interventions provided since 1998 in Latin America and the Caribbean to address survivors’ psychological distress after natural disasters (e.g., flooding, landslides, earthquakes), man-made disasters, human massacre, and severe interpersonal violence. Treatment has been provided to child, adolescent, and adult survivors, often in community settings, and to first responders and cancer patients. The EMDR early intervention protocols are brief effective interventions that can be used in the field or emergency situations; there is a body of research supporting the use of modified EMDR therapy protocols to treat acute trauma in both group and individual formats (Jarero, Artigas, & Luber, 2011).
This book provides a standard that reflects the basic elements of the 11-Step Standard Procedure; and the Standard 3-Pronged EMDR Protocol as they are applied to different populations. The diverse population includes children and adolescents; couples; clients suffering with complex post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders; clients with anxiety; clients who demonstrate addictive behaviors; clients who deal with pain; clinicians themselves. The book serves as a basis to encourage research into these various applications for EMDR. It is divided into seven parts. Part I is devoted to the scripted EMDR protocols such as olfactory stimulation, which are used to develop resources for children and adolescents who may have suffered traumatic events in their life. The protocols take into account the particular difficulties of this developmental group and help minimize common difficulties and major hurdles. Part II describes scripted EMDR protocols designed by couples therapists and sex therapists to further the progress of their patients precisely targeting templates of relational interaction, anxiety, or sexual dysfunction. Part III concerns the scripted protocols for dissociative disorders and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. The protocols represent the structured scripted efforts of many trauma therapists over a considerable number of years. Parts IV and V of the book address the concretization of much needed scripts for the EMDR treatment of addictions and pain—two interconnected public health worries. Part VI looks at the world of people’s adaptation to fears and tackles the usage of scripted protocols to detoxify the impact of specific phobias. Part VII demonstrates the usage of scripted EMDR protocols in clinician care and in the management of secondary post-traumatic stress disorder and vicarious traumatization.