This article presents an overview of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Humanitarian Trauma Recovery Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean and provides the reader with clinical stories from the front lines. During our many years working in the field, we have observed that psychological trauma is a challenging consequence of the multifaceted situations confronting individuals and communities after disasters. In this article, we describe the EMDR humanitarian interventions provided since 1998 in Latin America and the Caribbean to address survivors’ psychological distress after natural disasters (e.g., flooding, landslides, earthquakes), man-made disasters, human massacre, and severe interpersonal violence. Treatment has been provided to child, adolescent, and adult survivors, often in community settings, and to first responders and cancer patients. The EMDR early intervention protocols are brief effective interventions that can be used in the field or emergency situations; there is a body of research supporting the use of modified EMDR therapy protocols to treat acute trauma in both group and individual formats (Jarero, Artigas, & Luber, 2011).
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- Go to article: EMDR Therapy Humanitarian Trauma Recovery Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Go to article: Special Applications of EMDR: Treatment of Performance Anxiety, Sex Offenders, Couples, Families, and Traumatized Groups
Special Applications of EMDR: Treatment of Performance Anxiety, Sex Offenders, Couples, Families, and Traumatized Groups
This article presents four brief reports that illustrate EMDR’s potential in addressing a range of pathologies and problems. These include traumatized groups, families and couples, sex offenders, and individuals with performance anxiety. Each brief report provides a short summary of the research, highlights current EMDR research, and points out what is needed for future investigations. Preliminary results suggest that the EMDR–integrative group treatment protocol may be an effective means of providing mental health care to large groups of people affected by critical incidents. The report titled “EMDR in Couples and Family Therapy” provides an overview of the field and describes the various ways in which EMDR is being incorporated. The presenting issue with performance anxiety is debilitating evaluation anxiety at the prospect of having to perform some important activity in front of an audience that matters a great deal to the client. Sex offender treatment is enhanced by an effective means of resolving psychological mechanisms that contribute to the dynamics of the offense chain.
- Go to article: Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients
Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. EMDR-IGTP intensive therapy was administered for 3 consecutive days, twice daily, to 24 adult women diagnosed with different types of cancer (cervical, breast, colon, bladder, and skin) who had PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and treatment. The data was analyzed using factorial ANOVA with the effects of the EMDR-IGTP evaluated with the Short PTSD Rating Interview as dependent variable and group (two groups of patients: active phase and follow-up phase of cancer treatment) and time (four time points) as independent variables. Post hoc analyses were carried out. Results showed significant main effects for time and group. No significant interaction was found. Results also showed an overall subjective improvement in the participants. This pilot study suggests that intensive administration of the EMDR-IGTP can be a valuable support for cancer patients with PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and treatment. Further research with randomized controlled studies is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of EMDR-IGTP in this population.
- Go to article: Intervenciones Humanitarias para la Recuperación del Trauma con Terapia EMDR en Latinoamérica y el Caribe
Intervenciones Humanitarias para la Recuperación del Trauma con Terapia EMDR en Latinoamérica y el Caribe
Este artículo presenta un resumen de las Intervenciones Humanitarias para la Recuperación del Trauma con Terapia de Reprocesamiento y Desensibilización a través del Movimiento Ocular (EMDR) en Latinoamérica y el Caribe y proporciona al lector ejemplos de historias clínicas obtenidas en la primera línea de apoyo. A lo largo de los muchos años realizando trabajo de campo, hemos observado que el trauma psicológico, como consecuencia de las situaciones multifacéticas que enfrentan los individuos y comunidades después de un desastre, implica un gran reto. En el presente artículo, describimos las Intervenciones Humanitarias con Terapia EMDR realizadas desde 1998 en Latinoamérica y el Caribe, para tratar las perturbaciones psicológicas que se presentan en las y los sobrevivientes después de desastres naturales (ej. inundaciones, deslizamientos de tierra, terremotos), desastres provocados por el hombre, masacres humanas y violencia interpersonal severa. Se ha proporcionado tratamiento a niños, adolescentes y adultos sobrevivientes, frecuentemente en las comunidades donde ocurrieron los desastres; así como a auxiliadores y a pacientes con cáncer. Los protocolos de Intervención Temprana con Terapia EMDR son intervenciones breves y efectivas que pueden ser utilizadas en campo o en situaciones de emergencia. Existe un cuerpo de investigaciones que apoyan el uso de protocolos modificados de Terapia EMDR para tratar el trauma agudo en formatos de atención individual y grupal (Jarero, Artigas, & Luber, 2011).
- Go to article: The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Child Victims of a Mass Disaster
The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment protocol (EMDR-IGTP) has been used in different parts of the world since 1998 with both adults and children after natural or man-made disasters. This protocol combines the eight standard EMDR treatment phases with a group therapy model, thus providing more extensive reach than the individual application of EMDR. In this study the EMDR-IGTP was used with 16 bereaved children after a human provoked disaster in the Mexican State of Coahuila in 2006. Results showed a significant decrease in scores on the Child’s Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale that was maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although controlled research is needed to establish the efficacy of this intervention, preliminary results suggest that EMDR-IGTP may be an effective means of providing treatment to large groups of people impacted by large-scale critical incidents (e.g., human-provoked disasters, terrorism, natural disasters).
- Go to article: Le protocole EMDR intégratif de traitement de groupe pour les patients atteints de cancer
L’expérience du cancer est un facteur de stress particulier au sein de l’infrastructure de l’état de stress post-traumatique (ESPT) car cette maladie débilitante implique des facteurs de stress permanents, et elle est à la fois aiguë et potentiellement chronique. Le cancer peut s’accompagner d’un large éventail d’effets négatifs connexes, tels que la détection d’une tumeur, le diagnostic, la gravité de la maladie et le pronostic, l’agressivité des traitements, la mutilation et le dysfonctionnement physique, les effets secondaires du traitement, les perturbations du fonctionnement physique, social et professionnel et, parfois, la récidive et un diagnostic de maladie terminale. Cet article fournit une description détaillée de l’application clinique du protocole intégratif de traitement de groupe de désensibilisation et de retraitement par les mouvements oculaires (EMDR-IGTP) adapté aux patients adolescents et adultes atteints de cancer et vivant avec un stress traumatique continu. Ce protocole administre les huit phases du traitement EMDR individuel à un groupe de patients en utilisant une composante de l’art-thérapie (c’est-à-dire des dessins) et le « butterfly hug » (BH – le « câlin de papillon », une méthode de stimulation bilatérale autoadministrée utilisée pour traiter le matériel traumatique). Une étude antérieure (Jarero et coll., 2015) avait montré qu’après six séances d’EMDR-IGTP, on observait une diminution significative des symptômes d’ESPT liés au diagnostic et au traitement de différents types de cancer chez des femmes adultes. Les effets se maintenaient lors de la séance de suivi, 90 jours plus tard. Dans le présent article, nous discutons de la manière dont on peut se servir de ce protocole pour fournir efficacement un traitement EMDR intensif à de grands groupes de patients, et nous donnons des instructions détaillées pour son utilisation, afin d’aborder l’une des principales dimensions psychologiques du cancer : les réactions de stress traumatique permanentes que connaissent les patients. Un exemple clinique illustre le processus de traitement.
- Go to article: EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context
EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context
This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI) in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the explosion in an explosives manufacturing factory north of Mexico City that killed 7 employees. The EMDR-PRECI was administered on 2 consecutive days to 25 survivors who had posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the critical incident. Participants’ mean score on the Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT) was 22, well above the clinical cutoff of 14. They were randomly assigned to immediate and waitlist/delayed treatment conditions and therapy was provided within 15 days of the explosion. Results showed significant main effects for the condition factor, F(1, 80) = 67.04, p < .000. SPRINT scores were significantly different across time showing the effects of the EMDR therapy through time, F(3, 80) = 150.69, p < .000. There was also a significant interaction effect, condition by time, F(2, 80) = 55.45, p < .001. There were significant differences between the two treatment conditions at Time 2 (post-immediate treatment vs. post-waitlist/delayed), t(11) = −10.08, p < .000. Treatment effects were maintained at 90-day follow-up. Results also showed an overall subjective improvement in the participants. This randomized controlled trial provides evidence for the efficacy of EMDR-PRECI in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms after a technological disaster.
- Go to article: The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Disaster Mental Health Continuum of Care Context
The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Disaster Mental Health Continuum of Care Context
This randomized, controlled group field study was conducted subsequent to a 7.2 earthquake in North Baja California, Mexico. Treatment was provided according to continuum of care principles. Crisis management debriefing was provided to 53 individuals. After this, the 18 individuals who had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale (IES) were then provided with the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI), a single-session modified EMDR protocol for the treatment of recent trauma. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: immediate treatment group and waitlist/delayed treatment group. There was no improvement in the waitlist/delayed treatment group, and scores of the immediate treatment group participants were significantly improved, compared with waitlist/delayed treatment group paticipants. One session of EMDR-PRECI produced significant improvement on symptoms of posttraumatic stress for both the immediate-treatment and waitlist/delayed treatment groups, with results maintained at 12-week follow-up, even though frightening aftershocks continued to occur frequently. This study provides preliminary evidence in support of the protocol’s efficacy in a disaster mental health continuum of care context. More controlled research is recommended to evaluate further the efficacy of this intervention.
- Go to article: The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Adults During Ongoing Geopolitical Crisis
The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Adults During Ongoing Geopolitical Crisis
The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) has been used in its original format or with adaptations to meet the circumstances in numerous settings around the world for thousands of disaster survivors after natural or man-made incidents. In this study, the EMDR-IGTP was applied during three consecutive days to a group of 20 adults during ongoing geopolitical crisis in a Central American country in 2009. Results in this uncontrolled study showed significant decreases in scores on the Subjective Unit of Disturbance Scale and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Changes on the IES were maintained at 14 weeks follow-up even though participants were still exposed to ongoing crisis. Controlled research is recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of this intervention.
Experiencing cancer is a peculiar stressor within the infrastructure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because this debilitating disease involves ongoing stressors and is both acute and potentially chronic. The experience can include a wide range of associated adverse events, such as tumor detection, diagnosis, severity of disease, and prognosis; aggressive treatment; disfigurement and bodily dysfunction; side effects of treatment; impaired physical, social, and occupational functioning; and sometimes, recurrence and diagnosis of terminal illness. This article provides a detailed description of the clinical application of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) Adapted for Adolescents and Adults Living with Ongoing Traumatic Stress for the patients with cancer. This protocol administers the eight phases of EMDR individual treatment to a group of patients using an art therapy format (i.e., drawings) and the butterfly hug (a self-administered bilateral stimulation method to process traumatic material). A previous study (Jarero et al., 2015) showed that after 6 sessions of EMDR-IGTP, there was a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. Effects were maintained at 90-day follow-up. In this article, we discuss how this protocol can be used to effectively provide intensive EMDR treatment to large groups of patients, and we provide detailed instructions for its provision to address one of the major psychological dimensions of cancer: the ongoing traumatic stress responses experienced by patients with cancer. A clinical example illustrates the treatment process.