Disasters, both natural and “man-made,” affect a large portion of the Earth’s population and can be expected to increase in intensity over the coming decades. The impact of disasters on mental health of affected populations is substantial and likely to be insufficiently addressed in the overall context of disaster response. While successful mental health intervention has been demonstrated in a variety of cases, including through the use of EMDR treatment, this problem needs more attention. Effective mental health response will be greatly supported by increased research on questions related to the incidence, form, and prognosis of disaster-generated traumatic stress, as these are affected by type of disaster, culture of affected population, sociological conditions, and neuropsychological factors, and the interactions among these. A brief summary of desirable research is presented that could help responders meet these challenges.