Research Article


Breast Hypoplasia and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Is There a Link?

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Low milk production is a common reason for early breastfeeding cessation. Breast hypoplasia is one possible reason for an inability to make a full milk supply.


This article explores endocrinological changes which may link polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and breast hypoplasia.


Stein-Leventhal syndrome—named after two American gynecologists—was the original name for PCOS, and minimal mammary gland tissue was included in the syndrome. Common characteristics of PCOS, including insulin resistance, obesity, hyperandrogenism, and low progesterone levels, may be involved in the pathogenesis of breast hypoplasia.


Lactation professionals should be aware of breast hypoplasia markers and common features of PCOS to help identify women at risk of low milk production to facilitate timely and optimal support for infant feeding.

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