Bone Stress Injuries

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention








Bone stress injury (BSI) represent an overuse injury to bone seen in athletes and active individuals. Despite being a common injury seen in clinical practice, there exists confusion on multiple aspects of this injury, including appropriate terminology. For example, “stress fracture” is often used interchangeably with “stress reaction” or “stress response”. Recent scientific discoveries on the topic of bone stress injury have advanced our understanding of risk factors for injury. Rarely can the injury be attributed solely to training errors. While training volume, intensity, and frequency do influence bone remodeling, most BSI are multifactorial and involve a combination of biological, anatomical, and biomechanical risk factors for injury. Recognizing risk factors for BSI may help to develop a comprehensive treatment plan to address each injury. Further, the goal of treating the injury should focus on methods to optimize bone health and develop strategies for future injury prevention. This book is organized to address aspects of clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation, and prevention. The authors invited experts across a range of topics to provide a more complete understanding of the full spectrum in BSI treatment. Initial chapters focus on evaluating injury, including the role of the clinical examination and imaging to guide treatment. Recognition of risk factors for BSI are separated into biological and biomechanical risk factors, including gender, age, and anatomical location. The book reviews methods to optimize treatment in each section by anatomical location, and reviews strategies for refractory injuries in designated chapters on medications, emerging technologies, and interventions. Further, the authors identify what is known about future injury prevention and methods to optimize bone strength. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding of BSI that improves clinical outcomes and provides a patient-centered treatment program.

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