Dedication Contributors Preface I: Introduction 1: History of Spinal Cord Medicine 2: Development, Anatomy, and Function of the Spinal Cord 3: Pathology of the Spinal Cord 4: Epidemiology of Spinal Cord Injury 5: Neurological Assessment and Classification of Spinal Cord Injury 6: Imaging of the Spinal Cord 7: Electrodiagnostic Evaluation of Spinal Cord Disorders 8: Functional Assessment in Spinal Cord Injury 9: Predicting Outcomes Following Spinal Cord Injury II: Acute Spinal Cord Injury Management and Surgical Considerations 10: Prehospital Management of Spinal Cord Injury 11: Management of Trauma Patients With Complex Injuries 12: Neuro-Critical Care Management of Acute Spinal Cord Injury 13: Factors Affecting Surgical Decision Making in the Management of Spinal Cord Injury 14: Surgical Management for Cervical Spinal Injuries 15: Surgical Management for Thoracolumbar Spinal Injuries III: Medical Management 16: Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Disorders 17: Autonomic Dysfunction and Management 18: Respiratory and Sleep Disorders in Spinal Cord Dysfunction 19: Infections in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury 20: Endocrinology and Metabolism of Persons With Spinal Cord Injury 21: Nutrition in Spinal Cord Injury 22: Urologic Management and Renal Disease in Spinal Cord Injury 23: Gastrointestinal Disorders in Spinal Cord Injury 24: Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility in Individuals With Spinal Cord Disorders IV: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Care 25: Pain Management in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury 26: Overuse Injuries and Fractures in Spinal Cord Injury 27: Spasticity Management 28: Surgical Restoration of the Hand in Tetraplegia: Tendon and Nerve Transfers 29: Medical Management of Pressure Injuries in Patients With Spinal Cord Disorders 30: The Surgical Management of Pressure Injuries 31: Spine Complications in Patients With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury 32: Dual Diagnosis: Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury 33: Posttraumatic Syringomyelia and Spinal Cord Tethering 34: Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathies 35: Nontraumatic Myelopathies 36: Tumors of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Canal 37: Spondylotic and Myelopathic Myelopathies 38: Multiple Sclerosis 39: Motor Neuron Disease V: Spinal Cord Rehabilitation 40: Spinal Cord Rehabilitation 41: Activities of Daily Living and Upper Limb Orthotics 42: Advanced Mobility and Strategies to Promote Walking Function After Spinal Cord Injury 43: Spinal Orthoses 44: Wheelchairs and Seating for People With Spinal Cord Injury 45: Vocational Rehabilitation for Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury 46: Sports and Recreation 47: Driver Training After Spinal Cord Injury 48: Functional Electric Stimulation for Patients With Spinal Cord Injury 49: Therapeutic Exercise After Spinal Cord Injury 50: Home Modifications and Architectural Changes for Spinal Cord Injury Patients 51: Psychosocial Factors in Spinal Cord Injury VI: Recent Advances in Spinal Cord Research 52: Recent Advances in Spinal Cord Research: Preclinical Spinal Cord Injury, Plasticity, and Repair 53: Clinical Trials for Patients With Acute Spinal Cord Injury 54: Basic Concepts Underlying Activity-Dependent Mechanisms in the Rehabilitation of Sensory-Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury 55: Functional Magnetic Stimulation VII: System-Based Practice in Spinal Cord Medicine and Special Topics
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25: Pain Management in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury
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- Bryce, Thomas N.
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage that four out of every five people with spinal cord injury (SCI) report as an ongoing problem. Most pains after SCI can be classified into one of two broad subtypes: nociceptive pain which is pain arising from the activation of peripheral nerve sensory receptors capable of transducing and encoding noxious stimuli, and neuropathic pain which is pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. Ongoing pain may have an enormous emotional, physical, and social impact on a person's daily life. Numerous psychosocial factors and conditions have been associated with both pain-related distress and pain-related functional disability after SCI. This chapter discusses assessment of pain and relates psychological factors. It describes the types of pain such as musculoskeletal pain, visceral pain, other nociceptive pain and other neuropathic pain along with their treatment.